A&P2 Urinary system Flashcards

Nephron
Terms Definitions
-ptosis
drooping
albumino
protein
bacteri/o
bacteria
-uresis
urination
glycos/o
sugar, glucose
ur/o
urine (urea)
UA
urine analysis
perirenal
around the kidney
-poietin
substances that form
UTI
urinary tract infection
urea
waste product of nitrogen
glomerul/o
glomerulus (collection of capillaries)
nephrectomy
excision of a kidney
PCT Reabsorption
Site of most reabsorption
Podocytes terminated in (1)
foot processes
ur; urin
urination; urine; urinary tract
glomerulonephrosis
form of nephritis involving the kidney
When the concentration of ADH increases
 
a) less urine is produced
 
b) more salt is secreted by the nephron
 
c) more urine is produced
 
d) the specific gravity of urin decreases
a
kidneys regulate blood pressure with what hormone?
renin
Diuretics
Chemicals that enhance urinary output like osmotic diuretics, ADH inhibitors, and substances that inhibit Na+ reabsorption and obligatory H20 Reabsorption
Hemodialysis
Artificial means of removing waste from the blood with a machine.
NAMEthis is responsible for filtrate formation and inolves forces acting at the glomerular bed
NFP
Filtration
Blood enters glomerulus and blood pressure forces filtrate (~plasma) out of blood
urinalysis
laboratory test in which multiple routine tests are done on a urine specimen
isotonic
noting or pertaining to solutions characterized by equal osmotic pressure.
nephron
microscopic functional units of the kidney, comprised of kidney cells and capillaries, each capable of forming urine
macula densa
tall, closely compacted cells in ascending loop that contact granular cells at the juxtaglomerular apparatus. chemoreceptors for changes in NaCl concentration.
true or false
 
BP in the glomerulus is higher than in other capillary beds
true
2 nephron functions
remove wastes from blood
 
regulate water & electrolyte concentrations
Paracellular route
Movement through leaky tight junctions particularly in the PCT
hydronephrosis
abnormal collection of urine in the kidney
Atop each kidneys is a (1)
adrenal gland
NAMEthese filter about 2000 liters of fluid
kidneys
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
composed of the juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa; secretes renin and plays an important role in the autoregulation of filtrate formation
electrolyte
a chemical that carries an electrical charge in a solution. examples are potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+)
polyuria
the passing of an excessive quantity of urine, as in diabetes, in certain nervous diseases, etc.
nephrolithiasis
presence of renal stone or stones caused by mineral buildup in the kidneys-most commonly as a result of hyperuricuria (excessive amount of uric acid in the urine) or hypercalciuria(excessive amoun of calcium in the urine)
renal corpuscle
name of the glomerulus and the glomerular capsule
point of contact between
the afferent arteriole and DCT
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)
Net Filtration Pressure
The pressure responsible for filtrate formation. Determined by Glomerular hydrostatic pressure.Opposed by colloid osmotic pressure of glomerular blood and capsular hydrostatic pressure
Minor Calyx
surrounds the apex of the malpighian pyramids. Passes urine from the papilla at the apex to the major calyx
Horseshoe Kidney
Congential fusion of the lower poles of the kidneys
NAMEeach of these is assocaited w 2 capillary beds
nephron
Filtration fraction
the part of the plasma flowing through the filtration membranes into the lumen of Bowman's capsules to become filtrate; averages 19% of the plasma flowing through the kidney
glomerulus (plural: glomeruli)
tiny balls of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in cortex of kidney
lamina densa synthesized by?
both podocytes and endothelial cells
urethra
single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
juxtamedullary nephrons
these nephrons' loop of Henle go deep into medulla; produce concentrated urine
what is osmolarity
the number of dissolved substances per Liter
Urea makes up what percentage of the bodies nitrogenous wastesWhat is it produced from?Where
50%protein catabolismLiver
chloride ion reabsorption
* passively follows Na+ except in ascending limb of Henle* in ascending limb, there is an active transport mechanism for Cl-* Na+ passively follows Cl- due to opposite charges* if aldosterone is present, Cl- is more reabsorbed along with Na+
What is the NFP?
is resposnible for filrate formation and involves foreces acting at the glomerular bed
What are some hormonal regulations of GFR?
-atrial natriuretic peptides-renin-angiotensin system
How many liters of blood do the kidneys filter daily?
200 liters
Regulation of blood pressure
because kidneys help regulate blood volume, they in turn regulate blood pressure. Blood volume influences blood pressure; greater blood volume = higher blood pressure; lower blood volume = lower blood pressure; also regulate w/ renin hormone
stent placement
use of a device to hold open vessels or tubes
Primary regulatory hormones in the body are:
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which stimulates water conservation and the thirst center - this will raise blood volume and blood pressure
 
Aldosterone, which controls Na+ absorption and K+ loss along the DCT, -
 
Natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP), which reduce thirst and block release of ADH and aldosterone - this will promote fluid loss and lower blood volume and blood pressure
Collecting Duct
- made up of distal tubules of several nephrons- join with other ducts to form renal papilla- contain calyx and renal pelvis
NAMEthis is the cup shaped end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus
glomerular capsule
What occurs with renal compensation?
-kidneys excrete alkaline or acidic urine as needed-vary rates of H+ secretion and HCO3- reabsorption (depending on the pH of the ECF)
What are the 3 processes involved with urine production?
glomerular filtrationtubular resorptiontubular secretion
What is the name of the duct connected directly to the gallbladder?
Cystic duct
What is BUNWhat are the normal values?
Blood Urea Nitrogen 6-18 mg/dl
Where are JG cells found?
in the arteriloe walls of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
characteristics of urinevolume-color-ph-
1 to 2 liters per dayyellow or amber can change by beets4.6 to 8.0
What type of capillaries are in the glomerulus?
Fenestrated, without diaphgram (Basement membrane present.) Allows for macromolecules to pass.
the term for the fixed rate at which water is reabsorbed from the PCT
obligatory water reabsorption
In the urinary system, explain "excretion"
The removal of organic waste products from body fluids
What kind of tissue does the thin segement have?
simple squamous epthiliea freely permeable to water
How does the countercurrent multiplication and concentration of urine use a positive feedback loop?
-pumps out Na and Cl to elevate osmotic conc. in peritubular fluid-osmotic flow out of descending limb-now highly conc soln moves into ascending limb accelerates transport of Na and Cl into peritubular fluid
What 5 things can pass through filtration slits?
Glucose, salts, urea, drugs, and vitamins
What is the function of the urethra
transports urine from the bladder out of the body
Arterial supply and venous drainage of kidneys
Receive blood from renal aa. from abdominal aortaDrained by renal vv. into IVC
You are in "electrolyte balance" when...
the amount of ions gained each day is equal to the amount of ions lost each day
True or false. A bolus injection is a rapid introduction of the contrast agent into the vesicouretal system.
False, introduced into the vascular system.
lamina rarae are rich in ? their function?
rich in heparan sulfate act as electrostatic barriers to negatively charged molecules
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