A+P 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Facial
taste
mulberry
morul-
toward
ad-
amount
amt
cecum
cec-
suspension
susp
chrom/o
color
solution
soln
zygomaticus
smiles
an opening
-spadias
follicle-stimulating hormone
FSH
little, small
-ole
without, lacking
a-
outside, beyond
extra-
carpal
the wrist
Osseous Connective Tissue
Location
skeleton
 
Functions
protection
support
blood information
mineral storage
Anemia:
defenciency of RBCs.
acute otitis media
ADM
adverse drug reaction
ADR
to take apart
-lys
plantar
sole of foot
sagittal suture
connects parietals
White blood cells
Leukocytes
cardiac region
attaches to esophagus
Organism
An individual living thing
mydriasis
dilation of the pupil
somatopathy
disease in the body
Leukocyte Descriptions
-granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukotytes)-agranulocytes
scapular
shoulder blade area; scapula
Power packs of cells
Mytochondria
Isomer
Same Chemical Formual, Different Chemical Structure
Adductors
close VF to midline
Lateral Cricoarytenoid
Transverse Arytenoid
Oblique Arytenoids 
muscle fiber
any individual muscle cell
This hormone promotes spermatogenesis
 
relaxin
testosterone
inhibin
estrogen
aldosterone
 
2. testosterone
G proteins
GTP-binding regulatory protein tethered to the plasma membrane. Involved in transducing chemical signals to response of cells.
cell distruction (sickle cell)
hemolytic anemia
Enzymes
Biocatalyst, makes reaction occur faster without being consumed
microvilli
minute finger-like projections that greatly increase the surface of the cell
Small irregularly shaped particles associated with clotting of blood
Thrombocytes
Articulations
___________ represent the point at which two (or more) bones meet
Orbicularis oculi
Origin Orbit
Insertion Orbit
      Action close e-ye
Osteon
Microscopic Unit of compact bone tissue.
Plasma:
complex mixture (92% water) of proteins, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, and gases
 
Mentalis
Origin: V Shaped rectus at chin
 
Action: Elevates and protrudes lower lip (Pouting)
The Aditus
The opening into the larynx
myxedema
a condition of swelling attributable to an accumulation of mucus in the skin; results from deficiency of thyroid hormone in adult
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
 
anion
a negatively charged ion(gains an electron)
palpation
to examine through touch; to feel
Contractility
contaction fource for a given preload
Pressure
Application of force on some structure, for example: atmospheric=air pressure, hydrostatic=water pressure
Proteosomes
- breakdown unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins in the cytosol
centrioles
paired, cylindrical bodies lie at right angles to each other, close to the nucleus; direct the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division; form the bases of cilia and flagella
Tissues;
Group of cells (similiar or dissimilar)+ extracellular matrix(the material that surrounds the cell) that work together to perform at least 1 specific function.
wave summation
frequently delivered stimuli increases contractile force because muscle does not have time to completely relax
arteries
large, elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart
abdominopelvic 
cavity within the ventral cavity with 2 subdivisions
 
-abdominal
-pelvic
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide move between blood and the alveoli by
diffusion
Endochondrial Ossification
The replacement of cartilage by bone.
Sickle-cell Anemia and Thalassemia:
hereditary disorders affecting hemoglobin.
Metabolism
The sum of all the biochemical reactions that occur within a cell
sternum
the bone that forms the anterior portion of the thoracic cage.Supports the clavibles and articulates directly with the first seven pairs of ribs. Consists of the manubrium, the body (or gladiolus) and the xiphoid process
Systemic anatomy
body structure studied system by system
Metabolism:
Process of absorption, storage and use of food for body repair, growth and maintenance
labyrinthitis
inflammation of the labyrinth of the inner ear resulting in dizziness and loss of balance; otitis interna
phlebitis
inflammation of veins, which may be caused by pooling and stagnation of blood; often leads to the formation of blood clots within the vessel
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
An intestinal hormone that stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic juice release.
Compensation
The mechanism for adjusting to an abnormal condition.
What is the muscular system's function regarding body temperature?
head production
An uncharged or neutral atom found within the nucleus.
Neutron
second sound "dup"
closure of the semilunar valves
Acid
a substance that donates hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water
mucous membrane
line body cavities open to exterior
location: hollow organs of digestive, resp, urogenital tracts
function: absorption & secretion
exons
remaining segments of mRNA are spliced together before the mRNA leaves the nucleus.
figular collateral ligament
on fibia side of knee
Phosphorus
(P) Provides strength in bones and teeth. Part of DNA, RNA, and ATP
fatty acids
chains of carbons with attached hydrogens and a carboxyl group at one end
exact location of fertilization
ampula and isthmus junction
arachnoid
the serous membrane forming the middle of the three coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Anerobic
What is the primary way of ATP synthesis in fast glycolytic fibers? (Aerobic or anerobic?)
Epithelial Tissue
Tissue found on surfaces and in glandsex:
Burn damage limited to the superficial layers of the epidermis is classified as a
first-degree burn
What happens when the hydrogen ion concentration increases?
Becomes acidic
HOW MANY TUBES ARE ASSOCIATED W/ THE INNER EAR
2
physiology
concerns the function of the body; how the body works
Cardiac muscle Tissue:
Involuntary. Located only in the heart. Responsible for pumping blood into the heart chambers and certain blood vessels
nevus
 
plural:  nevi
an elevated, pigmented lesion on the skin; commonly called a mole; a dysplastic ___ is a mole that does not form properly & may progress to a type of skin cancer
radioactive isotope
an isotope with an unstable atomic nucleus that decomposes, releasing energy or atomic particles
External nares
The external openings leading into the nasal cavities; also called the nostrils.
Filtrate
Fluid and solutes that are forced out of the blood into the glomerular capsule of the kidney, and then processed by the renal tubules to form urine.
Class II MHC proteins
Cell-surface molecules that display antigens originating outside the cell to CD4 T lymphocytes.
what region is the sura in?
the sural region
What has been termed the secret of life.
Protoplasm
two renal veins empty into the
inferior vena cava
The system of protein rods and tubules within the cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
Centrosome
- serves as a center for organizing microtubules in dividing cells (mitotic spindle) and nondividing cells.
Made up of stratum basale, stratum spinosum, strarum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
The Epidermis
24. The hormone that brings about sleep is:
a) melatonin
muscle fibers (what their made of)
budle of myofibrils
hypothalamus
a region of the brain, between the thalamus and the midbrain, that functions as the main control center for the autonomic nervous system by regulating sleep cycles, body temperature, appetite, etc., and that acts as an endocrine gland by producing hormone
Complete (fused) tetanus
_________ occurs when there is a sustained contraction without relaxation. 
Which of the following is the correct SEQUENCE of parts along which a nerve impulse normally travels?
dendrite-cell body-axon
What is acidic on the pH scale?
less than 7
Muscle Twitch
Response of a muscle to a single, brief threshold stimulus
Intrinsic Membranes and Ligaments
of
the Larynx
Conus elasticuslocated betweent he superior border of the arch and the lamina of the cicoid catilage to the upper limmits of the true vocal folds
bounded by the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilges

Qudrangular membranelocated between the aryepiglottic folds and the false (venticular) vocal folds
target tissue
a tissue (cells) that responds to a particular hormone because it has receptor sites for that hormone
carcinoma in situ
cancer in the early stage before invading surrounding tissue
Chief cell
A cell of the stomach that secretes pepsinogen.
PreGanglionic Neuron
Begins at Cell body of brain or spinal cord Lateral Horn of Grey Matter. Type B fiber
Compound
a substance made up of more than one type of atom
Chromatin
- the material that is composed of DNA and histone proteins.
Chromatin
(Chromosomes are composed of ____________)
Parathyroid hormone (parathyroid glands)Chp 6
Increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones to the blood. (raises blood calcium level)
patella
the flat, movable bone at the front of the knee; kneecap.
What are arrector pili?
location?
smooth muscle cells that contract in response to cold temperatures or emotional distress
 
-each hair follicle has them
-pull follicle upright
where do some preganglionic fibers synapse? what do these fibers release? what does this release cause? what does this initiate?
-synapses on adrenal medulla-release acetylcholine (which binds to N1 receptors on the adrenal medulla)-causes release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medullary tissue into the blood stream-initiates a "system wide sympathetic response"
 
Adductor longus and brevis
Origin: Near pubic symphysis; to femur linea aspera
 
Action: Adducts and medially rotate thigh
When viewing an ECG, which of the following typically cannot be seen?

atrial depolarization
atrial repolarization
ventricular depolarization
ventricular repolarization
all of these can be seen
2. atrial repolarization
What is the mediastinum's funtion?
it surrounds, stabilizes and supports the esophagus, trachea and thymus
in cases of renal failure the follow are decreased
secretionfiltration ratetubular absorption
define the Synapse/synaptic cleft
space between the axon terminal and the receptor (another nerve, muscle or an organ). The neurotransmitter is secreted into this space for binding to the receptor site.
Examples of Positive Feedback
1. Blood clotting 2. Increasingly forceful labor contractions during childbirth
what is edema?
the loss of fluid from blood vessels & into tissues
 
-inflammation & swelling
-usually occurs in 2nd degree burns
What is a structural formula?
Shows how molecules are joined and arranged in various molecules
Muscles that attach the arm to the body.
Latissiums DorsiPectoral Major Pectoral MinorSerratus AnteriorTrapezius
What happens when a synapse is end bulb to end bulb?
The response is inhibitory.
Name all 5 deep facial bones:
- Palatine (2)
- Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)
- Vomer (1)
Osteocytes. Chapter 6 WB
Regulate the amount of calcium in the bone matrix, and are called bone cells.
how are action potentials moved throughout the axon?what happens at each patch of membrane?
-they are propagated down the entire length of axons-the original action potential is newly generated
What are the 3 forms of information a physician looks for to analyze a patient?
anatomical, physiological and psychological
What does the Squamous suture connect?
- Connects the Temporal and the Parietal bones on either side of the skull
Amino Acids (consist of 5 components)
proteins consist of long chains of organic molecules called amino acids. Components: 1. central carbon atom. 2. Hydrogen atom. 3. Amino group (-NH2) 4. Carboxylic Acid group (-COOH). 5. a variable R (radical) group or side chain
Three main parts of a cell
1. Cell membrane, 2. the cytoplasm, 3. the nucleus
What are sutures?

and

Name 4 major sutures:
- They form where 2 bones interconnect and join

- Lambdoid Suture
- Coronal Suture
- Sagittal Suture
- Squamous Suture
what are nodes of ranvier? how does action potential travel through them?
-gaps b/w myelin which create "bare axonal spaces"-action potential "jumps" from node to node via saltatory conduction
Lacrimal bone. Chp 6 pg 123
There is a lacrimal bone at the medial side of each orbit; the lacrimal canal contains the lacrimal sac, a passageway for tears.
Give me an example of Superficial and Deep
the skin of the arm is superficial to the muscles below it, and the bone of the upper arm is deep to the muscles that surround and cover it
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