A.P Government Flashcards

Terms Definitions
President
Enforces national laws
Tim Geithner
Secretary of Treasury
Family
#1 indicator of political socialization
interstate commerce
trade among the states
Incumbent
An officeholder who is seeking reelection.
John Roberts
chief justice of supreme court
connecticut compromise
agreement during the Constitutional Convention that Congress should be composed of a Senate, in which States would be represented equally, and a House, in which representation would be based on a State's population
Unitary Government
Centralized Government. Creates all local government. Example Britain-parliament holds all government power.
interstae compacts
a formal agreement between states
jus soli
the principle that a person's nationality at birth is determined by the place of birth
judicial
power to interpret and apply the laws
recall
a procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official
Franking Privilege
Benefit allowing members of congress to mail letters and other materials postage free.
Purpose of Government
perfect union, justice, domestic, tranquility, defense, welfare, liberty
republic
a government in which voters hold sovereign power; elected representatives, responsible to the people, exercise that power
US Constitution
outline for how government should work
Who is the current Attourney General?
John Ashcroft
Labor Unions
An organization of workers formed to represent its members' interests in various employment matters.
limitied government
a government with powers that are limited either through a written document or through widely shared beliefs
fiscal policy
Use of the federal government's powers of spending and taxation to stabilize the business cycle. If the economy is mired in a recession, then the appropriate fiscal policy is to increase spending or reduce taxes--termed expansionary policy. During periods of high inflation, the opposite actions are needed--contractionary policy. The consequences of fiscal policy are typically observed in terms of the federal deficit.
the Midwest
subregion that contains the 12 states of the North Central US
cooperative federalism
a model of federalism that stresses the linkages and joint arrangements among the three levels of government
Public Policies
All those things a government decides to do.
concurrent jurisdiction
Powers shared by federal and State courts to hear certain cases.
How much does winning a Senate seat cost?
millions
Oligarchy
A system of government in which a small group holds power.
Free exercise clause
provision of Amendment 1 stating that Congress may not prohibit the free exercise of religion.
Boycott
refuse to by form or deal with stores and companies that practiced racial discrimination
Constitutional Government
A government in which the powers of the ruler or rulers are limited by a constitution. The rulers must obey the constitution.
Faction
a group or bloc in a legislature or political party acting in pursuit of some special interest or position
separation of powers
a feature of the constitution that requires each o the the 3 branches of government executive legislative and judicial to be relatively independent of the others so that one can't control the others power is shared among them
cloture
Procedure that may be used to limit or end floor debate in a legislative body.
Amicus curiae Breif
"friend of the Court" briefs. Those come from individuals, interest grou9ps, or government agencies claiming to have info useful for the courts consideration of a case
Judicial restraint
Conservative, goes by the words or the intent of the framers.
Please state the name and country of the person who accomplished the following: Explored Georgia, Tennesee, Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma and was the first person to see the Mississippi River.
Hernando Desoto
consumer price index
An index of prices of goods and services typically purchased by urban consumers
judicial review
the power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a governmental action.
Virginia (large state) Plan
James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
ORIGINAL JURISDICTION
is the right to hear a case for the first time as opposed to appellate jurisdiction when a court has the right to review a lower court's decision.
Definition of policymaking system
the way our government responds to the priorities of its people
Morris Fiorina argues that we live in a...
centrist/moderate society where voters are not significantly polarized
Why is low voter turnout bad?
If a lot of people don't show up at the polls, voters are a distorted sample of the public as a whole.
lo scambio
exchange
legislative branch
passes laws
Lobbyist
interest group representative.
ruled by the people
democracy
Secretary of Defense
Robert Gates
2
How many houses of Congress?
speaker of the house
nancy pelosi
filibuster
preventing bill passage through speeches/ delays
John Jay
American politiciannegotiates treaty with the Britishgets them to leave their posts in Northwest Territoryallows British to continue fur trade on American side of Canadian border
President, Vice-President, Cabinet
Executive Branch consists of...
false
True or False: Inter-state compacts allow states to enter treaties, alliences and confederations
federalists
favored executive leadership and they wanted to create a stronger national government
platform
a political party's formal statement of basic principles, stands on major issues, and objectives
Roe v. Wade
established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health or unborn child in 3rd. inferred from right of privacy established in griswald v. connecticut
appropriations bills
must start in the HoR
Federalism
PRINCIPLE, ( 6/6) Powers divided btween federal and state.
Conference committee:
temporary committees created to resolve the differences in similar bills passed in the House and Senate
framers
Group of delegates who drafted the United States Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787
unconstitutional
against what is permitted by the Constitution
kitchen cabinet
the informal advisors to the president
Supreme court
Highest court in the united states
Patronage
The giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected
volatile
people in the middle, no party identification, "independent"
Appropriations bill
proposed laws to authorize spending money
FEMA (2005-2007)
hurricane Katrina smashed aquarium of the Americas. FEMA gave them $617,000 to buy new fish The fish they needed lived in the area so they just fished for replacements and it only cost them $100,000. FEMA refused to reimburse the money and to save tax payers the other $500,000 because they didn't give them the money to go fishing. Bad publicity forced FEMA reimburse the money.
Importance:Rules become reality. Bureaucracies become so fixated on the rules that they do things that just look crazy.
Voter apathy
a lack of interest to vote
census
An account of the population taken every ten years
protects against cruel and unusual punishment
8th amendment
Transfer Payments-
benefits given directly to individuals from the government. May either be cash or in-kind transfers.
Machine
A party organization that recruits its members with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
Judiciary Act of 1789
established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system
Measurement error
the error that arises from attempting to measure something as subjective as an opinion
Nonpartisan Primary
a primary used to select canidates regardless of party affiliation
caucus
a meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies
13
How many courts are them in the Federal Court of appeals
US Problem of Slavery
Passion for equality is unequal.
F
Jingoism is love for and devotion to one's country.
New Jersey Plan
each state is represented equally, benefited small states
gerrymandering
drawing of boundaries in a way to produce a particular electorial outcome without reguard to shape
nonpatisan primary
primary - not identified by party labels
Proprietary
organized by a proprietor (a person to whom the king had made a grant of land)
Interested Money
Given in hope of influencing outcome and future policies.
melting pot
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the american nation. the united states, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot
prime minister
The head of government in a parliamentary system. Chosen by the legislature, this official selects the other ministers of government (usually from among the members of parliament) and remains in power as long as his or her party (or coalition) has a majority of seats in the legislature.
Print Media
The traditional form of mass media comprising magazines, newspapers, newsletter, and journals
When schools and businesses allocate admissions or jobs on the basis of race, gender, disability, or other criteria unrelated to ability, they are aiming at
equality of outcome.
civil disobedience
The act of breaking or refusing to keep a law that one considers to be unjust. Such action must be taken with great thought and consideration as the consequences can be very serious.
Legislative Proposal
The most common way to propose an amendment
Representative Democracy
a form of democracy in which the people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government.
Gideon v Wainwright
All criminally accused are entitled to an attorney
Tea Act
Tax on tea and other things, penalized colonial mercants.
Dictatorship
exists when one person or party runs a country
Train v. New York
limited president's power to impound money that Congress has appropriated
Line Item Veto
An executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
HOW MANY TOTAL SENATORS ARE THERE?
100 members 2 each state
Liberal vs conservative view of economics
Conservatives generally believe that the government's role should be severly limited. Liberals believe that the market needs to be regulated by the government. They also believe that the government can provide goods and services.
House rules committee
reviews bills in the House before they go to full house
General revenue sharing
federal aid to the states without any conditions on how the money is to be spent
freedom of speech/assembly
you can say almost anything that is legal
Distinguish between re-apportionment & redistricting.
Re-apportionment:
Act of change the # of H of R members & electoral votes assigned to each state (every 10 yrs after the census)
Redistributing the seats in the H of R
Redistricting:
Re-aligning the districts after reapportionment has happened
Non-governmental organization
A group in a free society that is not part of any government institution and does not derive its power from government.
rolls of Senate and the House in impeachment
Senate- conducts trials
House- impeaches
jus sanguis
the law of blood, or to whom one is born
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of race
Reporters have the ability to significantly influence news stories since they
have been trained to think critically and write well.
In recent years, the legislature in Texas:
Has become more urban and more Republican
Reasons why the public is so elusive
The Public appears in many guises - voters, constituents, participants.
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Term:
Definition:
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