A.P. Bio Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 
 
Prefix for tenths of units
 
 
Deci-
 
 
 
Polymerization 
 
 
 
The Linking of smaller molecules so as to form larger chains.

 
 
 
Alpha Glucose (Can be broken down in animals)
Rough ER
Folds polypeptide chains into fuctional proteins
Phospholipid Membrane Production 
Can also produce glycoproteins (pproteins with a carbohydrate attached) 
cells
All organisms are composed of cells.The cell is the fundamental unit of life.– Cells acquire and use energy– Cells organize molecules– Cells grow and reproduce– Cells live independently
According to the article, The Unintended Consequences of Changing Nature’s Balance, scientistsdiscovered which of the following on Macquarie Island?a. The cat population was naturally decimated when the rabbit population fell and there was no longer afo
B
What group of organelles is the chloroplast in?
Plastids
Fermentation
in the absence of oxygen, organisms undergo this process

animals form lactate
yeast forms ethanol
where does a protien exit the golgi
TRANS face
 
Active Site
 
Where the substrate fits into the enzyme
Acid Rain
a type of pollution

- changes soil and water chemistry
- kill some organisms, stresses others making them more susceptible to disease

results in dead trees & fish both decreasing biodiversity
Cisternae
Sacks and tubules on the ER and the Golgi Apperatus.
Seven Characteristics of Life
1. Information storage and retrieval (DNA)2. High level of order and complexity3. Energy conversion and metabolism4. Responsiveness to environment5. Capacity for growth and development6. Reproduction7. Evolution
Describe a Prokaryotic Cell
Genetic material is in cytoplasm and not contained
consists of only one molecule of DNA
has small ribosomes
photosynthetic membranes
 
What is the bond between the 5' phosphate group and the 3' hydroxyl group and what does it do?
Phosphodiester
 
Links together all the nucleotides 
archae
ancient
"toothhead"
odonata
Teosinte
corn ancestor
cubic centimeter
s
does this work?
no
lactation
production of milk
Defenses
Physical- ex. spines, thorns
 
Cryptic Coloration- ex. frogs that look like bark
 
Biochemical Defenses- ex. poison ivy
 
Aposmatic Coloration- ex. brightly colored frog shos predators it is poisonous
 
transfer or phosphate group
phosphorylation
Actinoptergii
lineage of osteichthyes: ray-finned fishes, most of the fish on the planet
Enantiomers
Stereoisomers that contain mirror images of another molecule.

RNA - stands for
 ribonucleic acid
homeostasis central to nutrition involves
-hormones-signaling-feedback
most basal Metazoans
Porocytes(metazoans - sponges)
cooperativity
a kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitter to all the others, facilitating binding subsequent substrate molecules
Appendicular Skeleton
Limbs and supporting bones, ligaments
Golgi
Vesicles destined for exocytosis are typically derived from the _________.
Bryophyta
+ non-vascular ( no vascular tissue)
+ Spores to reproduce
+ live in very moist areas
+ no roots, leaves
ex: moss low & moist
phosphofructokinase
key glycolysis enzyme, makes fructose 1, 6 biphosphate, negative feedback ATP and citrate
poly-A-tail
added at the end of transcription• facilitates export of mRNA from nucleus • stabilizes RNA
Ctenophora
comb jellies. like medusa of cnidarians but without cnidocysts
Biology
study of life AT ANY LEVEL
Metabolic Pathways
Ordered, enzyme mediated, biosynthetic or degradative
Environmental Stochasticity
Random variations in the environment that directly affect birth and death rates
Polyploidy
a chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets; the result of an accident of cell division
Nucleic Acid BOND
Phosphodiester bond (made from condensation rxn)
Glyoxisomes
one of the products of photosynthesis into a sugar to store energy,, type of peroxisome
Opisthokonts
Refers to posterior location of the flagellum in these organisms (fungi, animal and protistains)

Microbial Biochemistry

Study of microbial enzymes and chemical reactions
Thymus
•plays a role in three systems: endocrine, lymphatic, and immune•bilobed gland in the mediastinum superior to the heart–goes through involution after puberty•site of maturation of T cells important in immune defense•secretes hormones (thymopoietin, thymosin, and thymulin) that stimulate development of other lymphatic organs and activity of T-lymphocytes
peripheral proteins
membrane proteins that associate only with surfaces of membranes
passive transport
molecular movement that occurs without the input of energy
Which one of the following structures is found in plant and animal cells?
mitochondria
epiglottis
controls entry to trachea and lungs, makes sure food only goes down your esophagus
eukaryotic
any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or mei
less
ice is less or more dense than water
What percent of WBC are basophils
0% - 1%
parasite
an organism that lives on or within another organism (the host), from which it obtains nutrients and enjoys protection.  The parasite produces some degree of harm in the host.
vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
-maintains focus during head motion -direction of eye movement is opposite the direction of the head turn
carrier mediated diffusion
transported molecules are helped by receptor proteins/carriers in the membrane that can bind to the moleculeno energy required, with concentration gradient
Hormone Synthesis: Steroid Hormones
•synthesized from cholesterol – differs in functional groups attached to 4-ringed steroid backbone
when a cell releases a single molecule into the enviornment and a number of cells in the immediate vicinity respond, this type of signaling is
paracrine signaling
Mutualism
Two species help each other and both benefit, usually cant be without each other
isolated system
unable to exchange either energy or matter with its surroundings
observation
an act or instance of noticing or perceiving.
eukaryotic cell
cells that make up plants and animals; subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles
Who is creditied with proposing the theory of evolution by natural selection?
 
a. Robert Hooke
b. Gregor mendel
c. Charles Darwin
d. Sarah Palin
c. Charles Darwin
2 categories of limiting factors
1.Density dependent factors: crowding & competition2.Density independent factors: Natural disasters and strong environment change
What is altruism?
the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others
uracil(U)
functions in place of T in an RNA strand
Optimal Foraging Theory
Compromise b/w E spent searching + E/nutrition gained* Benefit & Cost *
electron
a unit of charge equal to the charge on one electron.
How many stages are apart of the Mitotic Phase?
Five.
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
Point Mutations
a mutation of a single base pair in the genome.
What is cellular metabolism?
Chemical reactions that occur in the cell. They are catalyzed by enzymes.
Structural Genes
Serve as a template for mRNA. Code for amino acid sequences.

Costs of terrestrial life
4
 

1. Can float in water (plants must have cells/tissues for support)
2. cells/tissues needed for aquiring and retaining water
3. environmental extremes are more likely
4. reproduction must be air-based
What are three types of asexual reproduction?
Binary fission- ex. amoebasBudding- ex. YeastVegetative reproduction- ex. Strawberries, Bermuda grass, ferns
Three Phases of Seed Germination
1. seeds take up enough water to hydrate their existing proteinsand membranes• oxygen consumption and protein synthesis in the seed increase2. water uptake stops, the seed begins to manufacture the newmRNAs and proteins needed to support growth• mitochondria begin to multiply3. water uptake resumes as growth begins• enables cells to enlarge and the embryo to burst from the seed coat
Acute Urethral Syndrome and Bacterial Vaginosis symptoms
Urethral syndrome - painful, urgent & frequent urinations. Vaginosis - exessive, smelly discharge; redness, itching, swelling
Why does this plant grow better at the front ofthe dune than in the back of the dune?
Ammophila requires frequent deposition of sand-source of nutrients, new sand stimulates growth, new roots. Once the plant is barried in new sand- grows new roots, and uses up all the nutrients.(accretion)
164. What signals the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones if the oocyte is fertilized?
the fertilization of the oocyte saves the degeneration of the corpus luteum and allows it to continue producing progesterone
How do you get rid of competitive inhibitors?
You can increase the concentrations of substrate so when the active sites are available substrates and not inhibitors gain entry.
coat color in 1 breed of mice is controlled by incompletely dominant alleles so dat yellow& white r homozygous, while cream is heterozygous. da cross of 2 cream individuals will produce
=# of white& yellow mice, w/2x as many creams as da odda 2 colors
-oscopy
viewing
-isia
condition
 
 
archegonia
 
female gametangia
cyt-; -cyte
cell; receptacle
arthropodsarachnids
spiders, scorpions, ticks
monosaccharide
glucose is a ...
CHROMOSOMES
FULL SET OF GENES
Re-read Splicing Mechanisms
Page 324!
Organelles
various functioning components that make up cells
Diastolic
minimum pressure causing intermittent blood flow
Left hemisphere
categorical_ hemisphere– specialized for spoken & written language, sequential &analytical reasoning (math & science), analyze data in linear way
symplesiomorphy
a shared ancestral character trait
Water-soluble vitamins
C & B vitamins
Ecosystem
Community and its associated physical environment
pulse-chase experiment
experimental approach to research "secretory pathway" from ER to leaving the cell, providescels with large concentration of radioactively labeled molecules for a short time, labels all proteins synthesized at this time, then unlabeled amino acid, testing done by Palade, supports hypothesis
fish belonging to class sarcopterygii first appeared in fossil record during
devonian
5' end
correlates with the phosphate group
chiasmata
the x shaped region representing homologous chromatids that exchange materials during meiosis; hold chromatids together
glycolysis
Occurs in the cytoplasmbreaks sugar, anaerobic
Single bonds are on _ plane(s)
4
carbon
a widely distributed element that forms organic compounds in combination with hydrogen, oxygen, etc., and that occurs in a pure state as diamond and graphite, and in an impure state as charcoal.
arbuscular mycorrhizae AM
mycorrhizae that are obligate symbionts, can be intercellular or intracellular
Cell sap
composed of water and dissolved substances
Define Science.
Knowledge from observation, study and experimentationused to determine the nature of what is being studied. Knowledge of the natural and physical world around us.
Nutrient
A substance an organism needs to remain alive
In a(n) (blank) bond, electrons are transferred from one atom to another
ionic
Ovarian cycle
controls timing of oocyte maturation in ovaries
Primary succession
disturbance removes soil and its organisms
Central Vacouole
Increases cell surface area store metabolic waste
What is transcription?
DNA → RNA

CGAT → CGAU
Long bacterial "hair" used for movement. Key example: sperm. Those crazy little guys.
endoplasmic reticulum
Phalloidin -
Locks actin in place, a drug
Amine
In amino acids and certain nucleotide bases. Water soluble.
tropism
a growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or away from stimuli due to differential rates of cell elongation
Two essential non living resources provided by physical environment
Matter and energy
Most important abiotic factors
temperature and precipitation; can tell a lot about an area based on these two factors
Hydrophobic effect
Things that have no charge are attracted to each other (fats, lipids, oil)




Genetic Diveristy
The total number of different alleles in an area.
aerobes use __as da final e- acceptor in e- transport phophorylation
O2
fight body cells infected wtih pathogens
cell mediated immunity
autoclave is used to
sterilize kills all living cells,spores and viruses
community ecology
how are species numbers determined and why to they vary
ph
the symbol for the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen ion concentration in gram atoms per liter, used to express the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0 to 14, where less than 7 represents acidity, 7 neutrality, and more than 7 alkali
triglycerides
• Fats and oils contain two types of subunit molecules: fatty acids and glyceral; they are ------------
In moths dark wings are dominant (D) and light wings are recessive (d). A dark winged moth is crossed with a homozygous light winged moth (dd) Of the offspring, 23 are dark winged and 30 are light winged. The genotype of the original moth is?
 
a. DD
b- Dd
layers of alimentary canal in order
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
RNA interference begins when _______
RNA polymerase transcribes DNA sequences that code for small RNA hairpin
Isotonic solution:
a solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis
Polypeptides chains can fold and coil upon themselves and join to each other with a variety of bonds. This creates a hierarchy of structures.
Structures of Protein
uterine cycle/menstrual cycle
ovarian cycle occurs in parallel with changes in the lining of the uterus
Define trophic cascade.
process by which effects exerted at an upper level flow down to influence two or more lower levels
What are some environmental problems that may be associated with socioeconomic adaption
overfishing, blast fishing, pollution of water around corals.
The species richness of a community refers to
the number of different species.
unsaturated fatty acids
one or more double bonds and is liquid at room temp ex: linoleic acid
What four gasses occur in the atmosphere and cycle globally?
Carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen
How have we increased crop yields on an industrial scale?
Genetically modified crops to withstand environmental elements, pesticides...
40. What is an “abiotic reservoir”?
an abiotic reservoir is the part of the ecosystem where a chemical accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms.
What happens when the sodium channels are blocked?
neuron is unable to generate action potentials
if a base addition occurs in the protein coding sequence of a gene, it is most likely that:
the resulting polypeptide or protein will be terminated early because the sequence of amino acids will be read out of frame
State the first and second laws of thermodynamics. What is entropy?
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy in the universe is constant, but energy constantly changes forms. The second law of thermodynamics states that every energy transformation increases the entropy of the system. Entropy is disorder, or rand
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Term:
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