A.P. Bio Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
opthal-
eye
multi-
many
-ped
foot
mono-
one; single
oxidation occurs in
mitochondria
coenzymes
type of cofactor
homology
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.
Adipocytes
(Latin: adips:fat, Greek:kytos:cell) AKA fat cells. Specialized cells whose cytoplasm contains almost nothing but triglycerides.
entropy
measure of disorder or randomness
salt
compound dissolves easily, releases ions other than H+ and OH-
proteolytic cleavage
irreversible covalent modification. Ex: enzyme released as zymogen, then cleaved and activated.
exergonic reaction
chemical reaction that releases energy; opposite of endergonic
photosynstem
photosynthetic unit where solar energy is absorbed and energy electrons are generated; contains a pigment complex and an electron acceptor, occurs as PS I and PS II
balancing selection
Natural selection that maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in a population (balanced polymorphism)
Chromosme
carries genes in linear order threadlike bodie
charge
electrical property that attracts and repels other subatomic particles
mass extinction
episode of great species loss
V_max
Maximum rate, proportional to enzyme concentration.
endergonic reaction
chemical reaction that requires an input of energy ; opposite of exergonic
thylakoid
flattened sac within a granum whose membrane contains chlorophyll and where the light reactions of photosynthesis occur
microevolution
The theory that natural selection can, over time, take an organism and transform it into a more specialized species of that organism
Organic Compound
a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
bioenergetics
1) the overall flow and transformation of energy in an organism. 2) the study of how energy flows through organisms
electronegativity
measure of atom's ability to pull electrons from other atoms (not a measure of charge)
Compound
Substance consisting of two of more elements in a fixed ratio
anomers
chiral component on opposite sides of the ring
glycolysis
first stage of anaerobic and aerobic respiration. Net Products: 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 ADP, P_i, H2O, 2 NADH. (2 ATPs spent and 4 ATP's produced)
enzyme inhibition
means by which cells regulate enzyme activity; may be competitive or noncompetitive inhibition
C4 plant
plant that fixes carbon dioxide to produce C4 molecucle that releases carbon dioxide to the Calvin Cycle.
population genetics
The study of genetic changes in populations; the science of microevolutionary changes in populations.
Nucleic Acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
mass number
# of protons and neutrons in nucleus
Prosthetic group
remain covalently bound to the enzyme throughout the reaction, and, like the enzyme, emerge from the reaction unchanged. Often vitamins or vitamin derivatives. Ex: Heme, other metal ions.
Amylose
Amylose is an isomer of cellu- lose that may be branched or unbranched and has the same alpha linkages as glycogen.
sexual selection
A form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates.
Trophic Level
step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem
Third Shell (model)
can hold 8 electrons (ex: sodium, chlorine, and argon)
fatty acids
Building blocks for most, but not all, complex lipids. They are long chains of carbons truncated at one end by a carboxylic acid. There is usually an even number of carbons, with the maximum number of carbons in humans being 24. Can be saturated or unsaturated. The form in which most fats reach the cell.
gene flow
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
Three major functions of lipids
phospholipids serve as a structural component of membranes; triacylglycerols store metabolic energy, provide thermal insulation and padding; steroids regulate metabolic activities; and some fatty acids (eicosanoids) even serve as local hormones.
Two stages of glycolysis
six carbon stage and a three carbon stage
why is the addition of carbon dioxide to the starting molecule called carbon fixation
inorganic carbon is added to an organic molecule
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