A.P. Bio Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions





Medical Microbiology



and Immunology
have roots with whoses work

who are deuterstomes?
Watson and Crick
WHo has Bilateral symmetry?
Amino acids=
one stop sign
solely Translated!
Catalyzes RNA creation?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
is the endoplasmic reticulum
produces 4 daughter cells
daughter cells are genetically different
only un eukaryotes; only in germ cells
titin (connectin)
–huge springy protein–helps stabilize the thick filament–center it between the thin filaments–prevents over stretching
Primary storage polysaccharide in animals (stored in liver and muscle)
messenger RNA
codes for a protein
Lentic habitat
littoral, limnetic, and benthic zones
phospholipid bilayer
form 2-layered membrane; hydrophobic parts of molecules stay away from water, whild hydrophilic portions remain surrounded by water
Peptide bond
Polymerizes amino acids to proteins
polymers with molecular weight greater thatn 1,000 grams
arachnoid mater
–transparent membrane over brain surface–subarachnoid space separates it from pia mater below
A pyrimidine always base-pairs with:
a purine.
What does the prefix hyper- mean?
interactions that involve long term mutual evolutionary adjustment of characteristics and members of biological communities
a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.
biological species concept
the primary definition of species
What is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
pulse pressure
(P. Porifera) Water enters through microscopic dermal pores into a large cavity called
a spongocoel
A process where foreign DNA is integrated into the bacterial chromosome by an exchange of homologous DNA segments
Which of the following phyla is represented by group E? (A) Mollusca (B) Cnidaria (Coelenterata) (C) Porifera (D) Chordata (E) Annelida
Recommended Carbohydrates per day
125-175 g complex carbohydrates/day
Made of protein dimers that interact with kinesin to move vessicles around the cell.
Incomplete dominance
Heterozygous form has an immediate phenotype.Each genotype exhibits a different phenotype (RR = red, Rr = pink, rr = white)
Enzymes have specific _ with which they interact
a symbiontic relationship between plant roots and fungi that helps plants absorb nutrients from soil, particularly phosphorus
leaf cutter ants
maintains the shape of the cell
cell wall
King Cobra
The largest venomous snake on Earth that is found in Southeast Asia that is a favorite of snake charmers
Positive feedback
an end product speeds up the production of the product
plasma membrane
defines the outer boundary of each cell
different forms of a gene that can exist
when life on earth began
~3.5 billion years ago
parietal lobe of cerebrum
receives and intergrates sensory info
daughter cells with abnormal number of chromosomes are called ______
aneuploid cells
adds the correct amino acids to the tRNAs
cant make own food, uses ingestion and digestion
Flexor Digitorum Profundus
deep muscle to the four fingers
profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life of an organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and then to the adult butterfly
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
life stage of a butterfly
1. larva (catepillar) - eating/growing, molting as it grows - consume milkweed "sap"
2. pupa - after several molts
3. later stage pupa - in pupa, larval tissues broken down and adult is built by division and diff of cells
4. emreging adult - emerge from pupal cuticle
5. adult - hemolymph pumped into veins of wings and then withdrawn, leaving hardened veins as struts supporting the wings
Mitochondra have their own ____ and ____
DNA and ribosomes
Formula for Photosynthesis

6H2O + 6CO2 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2OR
12H2O + 6CO2 --> Glucose + 6O2 + 6H2
Each cell of a multicellular eukaryote only expresses a fraction of its gene, and in each type of differentiated cell is a unique subset of genes is expressed.
Eukaryote Gene Regulation
28. A genus can be divided into
- Species
union of two or more atoms of the same of different elements
new types of environmental problems that have emerged in the past 50 years
Climate change
acid rain
hole in ozone layer
"dead zones" in the oceans
target organs or cells
those organs or cells that have receptors for a hormone and can respond to it
Germ line gene therapy
• sperm or eggs are modified by the introduction of functional genes & these genes become incorporated into the genome and can be passed to offspring
What are some characteristics of rodents? What Class is it in?
Mammalia:*teeth always growing (gnaw to shorten)*eat plants*has highest # of different species in class malmalia, 40% of mam. species*humans& rodents have good relationship because they are pets, lab animals, and aerate soil
dissociation constant
R + L in equil. with RL ; reactants over products
Peter D. Mitchell
Nobel prize in chem in 1978 for his contirbution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formation of the chemiosmotic theory
the unusable energy in a system is called what?
entropy (delta S) is what?
What does the enzyme exonuclease do?
It checks for mistakes made by polymerases and removes them
What is an example of an autosomal dominant trait?
Huntington’s disease, b/c you can get it with just H, 50% chance that kids will get it
An enzyme is a catalyst in a living thing. What function do enzymes carry out?
decrease the activation energy needed to start a reaction
T or F glucose exist only in ring form
False they also exist in straight chains
Upper lip
crab body plan
deductive reasoning
generalization; "If... then"
GH1 protein
defect cause dwarfism
Olfactory Bulbs
sense of smell
Reactant an enzyme acts on
zygote embedded into endometrial wall
Structure: linear, made of proteinFunction: maintains cell shape
Identifying organisms according to certain rules 

based on arbitrary, superficial characteristics rather than natural, organic relationships
the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form
What are the differences between inductive and deductive logic? How is each used in the experimental method?
Directional Selection
Occurs when natural selection increases frequency of one allele.
reduces pop. genetic diversity over time. 
if continues long enough, favored alleles frequency reaches 100%=fixed
alleles no longer found are lost
e.g. avg body size of swallow increased, Gough island mice devloped larger bodies to eat birds, not used to terrestrial predation
Proteins are made of _______
amino acids
in biological evolution, a possible cell forerunner that became a cell once it acquired genes
determine bonding between atoms. Atoms ant to be stable which requires the right # of electrons
sound detection- looks like a snail
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units strung together
ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or eudicot stem
Fatty Acid
organic comound habing a carboxyl group and a backbone of as many as thirty-six carbon atoms; saturated types have single bonds only; unsaturated types include one or more double covalent bonds
Dominant gene
gene that determines an organism's appearance
92% water and 8% and organic moleculesPlasma proteins are the most abundant molecules
molecules that have the same chemical formula but different arrangement
heterozygote advantage
heterozygotes have higher fitness than homozygotes
reulatory proteins of muscle contraction
troponin and tropomyosin
segments of DNA that code for protein, therefore: they are expressed
organic molecules required in the diet in quantities that are quite small compared with the relatively large quantities of essential amino acids and fatty acids animals need.
The basic structure of chromatin has sometimes been referred to as beads on a string of DNA. These beads are called
a conspicuous, rounded body within the nucleus of a cell.
The uppermost layers of branches in a forest (those fully exposed to the sun)
triple response
a growth maneuver that enables the shoot to avoid an obstacle
on vesicle membrane and related to the cargo
phylogenetic species concept
lumps populations into species groups based on ancestry
Which of the following physiological effects would likely occur first in a volunteer who was breathing air from which the CO2 was removed? (A) Decreased blood pH (B) Decreased respiratory rate (C) Increased respiratory rate (D) Increased pulse rate (E) In
Decreased respiratory rate
Pure culture
A single visible colony represents a pure culture or single type of bacterium isolated from a mixed culture.
_____ separate from others first (7 million years ago); then ______ (6 million)
gorillas; chimps
When compartment modelling, what inputs and outputs are usually considered?
Input-light-additional inputs (ie: bread)-feedingOutputs-predation-mortality-respiration-exports
The expression of both alleles for a trait in a heterozygous individual illustrates
a tubular organ that leads from the uterus to the opening of a female reproductive tract
sperm storage
females store and nourish sperm in their reproductive tract for long periods of time
When is hyperchloremia seen
With prolonged diarrhea and certain kidney disease
The period in the cell cycle from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication
4 levels of protein structure
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
Which of the following structures constitutes the human forebrain?
thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum
Where do animal viruses attach?
Plasma membrane of host cell
Mastigophora - Zooglafellates are
protozoans, no cell wall. use flagella

Trypansomas cause african sleeping sick
Trichonymph - digests cellulose, lives with in the termite
Founder effect (genetic drift)
Occurs when a small number of individuals leaves one population to start a new population

Characteristics of lichen
1. live in
2. aka

1. harsh environments (can tolarate little water)
2. reindeer moss
Negative Gene Regulation
Operons switched off by active form of repressor
Two Types 
Repressible Operons
Inducible Operons 
How do antibiotics work?
They target the peptidoglycan of the cell walls and break them down, which is why gram-negative bacteria are more resistant.
Asexual types of reproduction in Porifera
An outgrowth that detaches to become a new individual:
an encapsulated achaeocytes of sponge cells surrounded by a resistant covering:
-allows to be able to withstand _____ conditions
-typical ____ water
Asexual types of reproduction in Porifera
An outgrowth that detaches to become a new individual: budding
an encapsulated achaeocytes of sponge cells surrounded by a resistant covering:gemmules
-allows to be able to withstand harsh conditions
-typically fresh water
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Costal cartilages, ends of long bones, embryonic skeleton
Why do we breathe Oxygen
because it is the final electron acceptor. w/o it the Electron transport chain cannot run
Biodiversity is important to human society because...
is a natural resourceprovides food and goodsprovides medicines
After neurotransmitters are used, what happens to them?
They are either reabsorbed & re-used by nerve cells or are destroyed by enzymes
many amino acids specified by more than one codon & codons for the same amino acid tend to have ______
same nucleotides at first and second position and then a different nucleotide at third position
What did Hilde Maugold do that Hans Spemann later got credit for?
Hilde took two related specimens of chordates, took the chordomesoderm of one and put it into the other and got either an extragrowth or a one stuck to the other, She found that the chordomesoderm establishes the longitudinal axis of the body and also induces the formation of the nervous system.
What structures did the neural crest give rise to?
Some of the bones and cartilage of the skull
inflammation of
oven cleaner(Acidic/Neutral/Basic?)
cells release substances

in plasma membrane
Sickle-cell anemia
autosomal recessive disorder
Household unsaturated fats
peanut butter
assemblages of different populations who live in the same area.
Smallest organisms, most abundant, oldest on planet
Substances that prevent harmful changes in pH by accepting H+ when it is in excess and donating H+ when it is depleted
globulins (antibodies)
•provide immune system functions•alpha, beta and gamma globulins
French mathematician, biologist and astronomer
The geographic distribution of a species
Sexual dimorphism
Differences in phenotype of sexes
Examining structure of the human body
Anterior (the head front) Ventral (bottom side Belly)Posterior (Back end)Dorsal (top side)
the innermost tissue layer. all nutrients must cross this to enter the blood
nature vs nurture
evolution underlines all behaviors
used to make wine
bacteria or fungus
3. Coupled transporters (carriers)
ATP driven pumps
gets phosphorylated and breaks from Mdm2 if cell senses DNA break, a VERY important tumor supressor, that promotes p21 when activated
mullerian mimicry
two or more unpalatable species resemble eachother
The communities of organisms living in the benthic zone of an aquatic biome
(Acquired immunity)
Memory cells
Convert to plasma cells, make antibodies immediately
A solution of higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration of water molecules than another solution
Asexual reproduction
when one parentproduces a genetically identical offspring
in lac operon, catabolite is ________; when it is abundant, transcription is decreased by catabolite repression
problem with osmoconformers
-ionic osmolytes destablizing to macromolecules-solution: use uncharged organic molecules as osmolytes
A zygote undergoes several rounds of cell division, resulting in a ball of cells known as a _____.
Turnover of the ATP pool:
every 1-2 min
external sac that holds testes outside the body
keeps testes cooler than core body temperature
necessary for normal sperm development
krebs cycle
a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed.
Community Ecology
Community is all the organisms that interact within an area.
Focuses on interspecific interactions (all to increase fitness,) community structure, and community response to disturbance (i.e. fire)
Appendicular Skeleton
Upper and lower limbs plus their girdles (the bones that support them)
Hierarchies of Classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species"Sorority Girls Frolic on Class Pillows Knightly"
Process of Meiosis
tow consecutive cell divisions which reduce parental chromosone number by half and produce four haploid daughter cells
each daughter cell is genetically different from parental cells
only occurs in eukaryotes and is restricted to germ cells- located in the testes and ovaries
small intestine
10ft long with three sections, about 80% of absorption occurs here
silent mutation
type of alteration in base sequence that has no effect at all; if in third position will probably code for same amino acid; are neutral in their effect on individual's fitness; possible for point mutations to be silent and neutral b/c of genetic code redundancy
The defense mechanisms are divided into 3 lines of defense. Which defense mechanism is made up of the 3rd line of defense
specific def. mech.
This hypothesis proposes that long food chains are less stable than short ones.
Dynamic stability hypothesis
Okazaki fragments
Small fragments that make up lagging strand
Can be various shapes, but are shorter than fibers. Source of "gritty" texture of pear.
Cytotoxic T cell
A type of lymphocyte that kills infected cells and cancer cells
go to page 1117, cover up names, and list each color.
Spinal nerve route
– Effectors in body wall are innervated by sympathetic fibers thattravel through spinal nerves– Sweat glands, piloerector muscles, blood vessels of skin & skeletalmuscles
tRNA synthetase
loads the correct amino acid on a tRNA
Skin has 2 layers. what are they
epidermis and dermis
closely linked genes
When two different traits are near each other on the chromosome, they usually stay together
Shoot System
Division of plant body that consist of stems and leaves.
Water Property #4:
High heat carrying capacity
Hydrogen bonds:good ability to absorb heat from air, can release stored air that is cooler 
T or F all living cells do not contain glucose?
what opening serve to bring water through the body while filter feeding
incurrent and excurrent siphons
regulatory gene
a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
what was the first group of vertebrates to evolve?
Superclass Agnatha = jawless fishes
Dolly was genetically identical to:
the sheep that donated the nucleus that formed her first cell.
Water passes quickly through cell membranes because
it moves through aquaporins in the membrane
steps after start of termination of translation
active site catalyzes hydrolysis of bond linking tRNA in P site with polypeptide chain; this frees polypeptide from ribosome, ribosome separates from mRNA, and two ribosomal subunits dissociate; subunits now ready to attach to start codon of another message and start translation again
What does it mean if trachea is deviated
unilateral lung problem such as atelactasis or pneumothorax that involves the upper lobe of one lung
Which of the following is possible due to the surface tension of water?
A waterstrider can walk across a small pond.
15. In artificial insemination, AI, a. the eggs are removed from a woman's ovary, are fertilized in a laboratory dish by sperm, and then introduced into her uterus.b. the male partner of a childless couple impregnates another woman, who carries the baby t
D. Semen from a man is mechanically introduced into the woman's vagina, cervix or uterus.
Which of the following is NOT a known function of the cytoskeleton?
To maintain a critical limit on cell size.
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