A.P. Biology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
[H+][OH-]=
10^-14
hydrophilic
loves water
Carbohydrates monomers
Glucose
Hydrophyllic
attracted to waterpolar
protoplast
cell-wall-free plant cells
species richness
higher at equator
Bromeliaceae
leaves form water tanks
example of parthenogenesis
male honeybees
rods and cones located here
retina
Define: strata
sedimentary rock layers (fossils)
Imitation
-Mimicking behavior of parents-Trial and error for success-Ex: hunting or pouncing (by all cats)
Explain how temperature, pH, cofactors, and enzyme inhibitors can affect enzyme activity.
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate (consists of 5-carbon sugar called ribose) (consists of 3 phosphate groups, tail)
threonine
an essential amino acid, CH3CHOHCH(NH2)COOH, obtained by the hydrolysis of proteins.
Base
substance that reduces the hydrogen cation concentration; accepts free H ions or releases OH ions (NH3 <=> NH4+) or (NaOH -> Na+ + OH-)
Chloroplasts
Share features with mitochondria, use sun energy, use ribosomes, amek protein
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Does the Prep reaction make FADH2?
No
what organelle manufactures the ribosomal subunits?
the nucleolus
Arthropods
segmented coelomates that have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages. Have well-developed sensory. Most sensory organs are concentrated at the anterior end of the animal. The coelom that forms in the embryo is reduced in arthropods; and the hemocoel becomes the main boyd cavity in adults.
Body Organization
Bring about and maintain homeostasis.
TRUE OR FALSEhexokinase is an enzyme
TRUE
spontaneous generation
hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could arise from nonliving matter
predation
an interaction between two organisms in which one organism, the predator, kills and feeds on the other organisms
microscope
an optical instrument having a magnifying lens or a combination of lenses for inspecting objects too small to be seen or too small to be seen distinctly and in detail by the unaided eye.
condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
summation
the addition of stimuli (EPSPs & IPSPs) which a postsynaptic neuron considers to decide whether to fire an AP
what type of hormone responds to cytoplasmic receptors?
steroid
Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?-Peptide bonds-Hydrogen bonds-Disulphide bonds-All
All
a trace of long-dead organisms usually found in layers of sedimentary rock (REF 279)
FOSSILS
Mineralicorticoids
Ex. Aldosterone. Effect salt and water balance. Promotes reabsorbtion of sodium and chloride ions in kidney tubules.
catalyst
a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Domains
followed by kingdoms, are the broadest units of classification
Some types of aquatic frogs bury themselves in the mud and spend the winter hibernating at the bottom of lakes and ponds. Which characteristic of life does this behavior represent?
response
They are singled celled organisms that lack a nucleus
prokaryotes
Complete gut with two openings
Complete digestive tract
cerebral cortex
has an influence– anger, fear, anxiety; powerful emotions influence the ANS because of the connections between our limbic system and the hypothalamus
Monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
chemical reaction
occurs when chemical bonds between atoms are broken, forming a new substance
define pigments
molecules that absorb specific colours of light
nitrogen fixation
any process of combining atmospheric nitrogen with other elements, either by chemical means or by bacterial action: used chiefly in the preparation of fertilizers, industrial products, etc.
What are the characteristics of k-related species?
delayed reproduction
few offspring
lots of investment in each offspring
long lifespan
large adult body size
What are the two deuterostome phyla?
echinodermata & chordata
Glucose
A simple sugar; major source of energy for cells
class amphibia
class under sub phylum vertebrata of phylum chordata
frogs, toads, salamanders, ceacilians
partly terrestrial (eggs and larve are in water)
evolved legs
ectotherms
Enzyme-Substrate Complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
protein
polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers
Somantic Cells
non-reproductive and they have two set of chromosomes
Carolus Linnaeus
Father of modern taxonomy
laid the foundations for modern day (binomial) nomenclature
What is the process called where cells form into different cells such as blood, muscle and nerve cells
Differentiation
Grana ch.4
stacks of membranous sacs suspended in stoma
stage in which an insect changes from larva to adult
pupa
organelle
a specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.
Genetic correlation
selection on alleles for one trait cause a correlated, though suboptimal, increase in another trait
atp function
when atp is involved in a chemical reaction that breaks one or both of these phosphate bonds, potential energy is released resulting molecule is ADP
Eutrophic (river, lake estuary)
nutrient rich, likely to produce noxious or harmful algal blooms (cyanobacteria, toxic dinoflagellates)
phylogenetic species concept
defines a species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor
Replication fork
The area where two DNA strands have separated and new strands are being synthesized.
One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulmonary vein
Principle of Parsimony
the simplest explanation is the best explanation
Water cycleNitrogen cycle (plants, animals, environment)Phosphorus cycle (plants, animals, soil, decomposers)Carbon cycle
Why does life need phosphorus?
Exponential Growth
A model of population growth in which a constant and unlimited growth rate results in geometric increases in population size
complex I; complex II
NADH releases its electrons at _______ __, and FADH2 releases its electrons at _______ __.
how much bile does the liver produce a day?
1000 ml/day
Photosynthetic activity can be found in...
plants, algae, and some bacteria
The greater the _____ relative to the ______ of a cell, the more efficiently it will be able to function.
surface area, volume.
Anterior end
The end of an animal that contains its head
bottleneck effect(type of genetic drift)
natural disasters reduce size of a populationloss of genetic variation
Speciation is said to have occured when
individuals from separate populations are no longer able to interbreed successfully.
What does recombinant DNA technology do?
It combines genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule.
What is the change in free energy of a system at chemical equilibrium?-slightly increasing-greatly decreasing-no net change
no net change
What are some of the recurring challenges impacting plants and animals?
-All plants and animals must accomplish certain task-Gas exchange-Internal transport-Maintaining solute water balance-integrating signals
1.      What is a Hebbian synapse?
D.O. Hebb proposed that when an axon successfully stimulates a cell it will be even more successful in the future
What is the importance of Genetic Variation in pop.? What does natural selection do and how does it work? Which are the fittest?
The importance of genetic variation in pop. is that if there all the same something would happen like a virus, then the whole pop would become exstinct.  Having Genetic variation allows for pop to pass on there genes to the next generation. 
 
-Natural Selection: Survival of the Fittest
-The one's that survive and pass there traits to the next generation are the fittest. 
how many autosomes and sex chromsomes do humans possess?
22 autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.
Hormones have MULTIPLE effects on the plant. What does the effects depend on? (It affects what the hormones do)
depends on its site (shoot vs root) of action
-its concentration
-its developmental stage( e.g. seed vs seedling, mature plant of plant)
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