A.P. Biology Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cyto
cell
bactr-
stick;club
gated channels
class containing earthworms
Oligochaeta
monocot
one seed leaf
OXT
Oxytocin
gland: posterior pituitary stimulated by: pressure and touch of the uterus, cervix and nipple, sent by the paraventricular nucleus
target:
  female- uterus, mammary glands
  male- vas deferens, prostate gland
effect:
  female- labor contractions, milk ejection
  male- contractions of vas deferens and prostate gland
regulation: none
what are monomers?
small molecules
______________ stimulates the branching of the ROOT system. (but inhibits branching of the shoot system)

Auxins
Equisetum
Example of the Phylum Sphenophyta
Taxonomy of a Human
Domain: Eukarya
Supergroup
Kingdom: anamiala
Phylum: chordata
Class: mammalia
Order: primate
Family: huminidae
Genus: Homo
Species: homo sapien
CATABOLISM
reactions releasing energy and breaking down large molecules into smaller ones.
Extend the abbreviation: MG
myasthenia gravis
REPTILIA
DINOSAURS, SNAKES CROCS, GATORS, TURTLES, LIZARDSTOUGH SCALY SKIN, KIDNEYS TO CONSERVE WATER,
Test Tube
to test chemicals in
Lysozyme
Hydrolytic enzyme found in the cytoplasm
Spindle
the centrosomes organize the mitotic spindle, which contains many fibers, each composed of a bundle of microtubules (154)
photosynthesis
process thru which organismms capture energy from the sun (solar energy) and convert it into chemical energy (which is initially stored in a carb)
Amino Acids
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups.
Chloroplasts
Organelles that capture energy from the sunlight and convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis.
postzygotic (3)
hybrid inviability, hybrid sterility, hybrid breakdown
codon
in DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
interferons
proteins produced by virus infected cells that signal other cells to produce proteins that interfere with virus prouction
THE NUCLEI DISAPPEAR DURING THIS STAGE OF MITOSIS
PROPHASE
when comparing two solutions, the solution with greater solution of solutes and the lesser concentration of water
Hypertonic
prion
a tiny proteinaceous particle, likened to viruses and viroids, but having no genetic component, thought to be an infectious agent in bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and similar encephalopathies.
hydrophobic
molecules that do not dissolve in water or form hydrogen bonds with water (nonpolar)
Symplast
In plants, the continum of cytoplasm connected by plasmodesmata between cells.
A typical value for the resting membrane potential is ______ mV
-70
Fecundity
Number of female offspring produced by each female
atom
the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
Antigen
A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and that elicits an immune response
temperate
referring to a bacteriophage that does not cause immediate lysis of the infected bacterial cell
lipid
one of a class of water-avoiding compounds
adhesion
the cling of one substance to another
hybrids
offspring of a cross between two individuals that breed true for different forms of a trait (each one has inherited nonidentical alleles for the trait)
family
the taxonomic category below the order and above the genus
body cavity
a fluid-containing space between the digestive tract and the body wall.
Base
a compound that produces hydroxide ion in a solution
this is the shipping station organelle
golgi body
overexploitation
using it up without replacing it, valuable animal hunting
anatomy
the science dealing with the structure of animals and plants.
(limited version of) population
group of organisms that interbreed
facilitated diffusion
many polar molecules and ions impeded by the lipid bilayer of a membrane diffuse passively with the help of transport proteins that span the membrane
Describe AIDS dementia complex
Memory Loss, Difficulty Concentrating, Eurphoria, Lethargy
cells use energy in forming and breaking bonds
through hydrolysis
Glomerular Filtration 
Movement of molecules from blood into the nephron based on size
Primary Productivity
Rate at which organic matter is created by producers
WHAT WERE THE DOMINANT ANIMALS DURING HTE JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS PERIOD?
JURASSIC: DINOSAURSCRETACCEOUS:REPTILES
diffusion
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
Pleiotropy
-Ability of one gene to have several effects on different characters-Usually due to single cause such as a defective enzyme
Diploid cell
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent
allele
either of two two alternative forms of a gene for a particular trait such as flower color
abiotic factor
a non-living part of an environment such as water,soil,light,temperature, and wind
What is Heat of vaporization?
helps moderate earth climate
cell theory
vast amounts of cellular research have led to and continue to support a set of conclusions that are collectively referred to as ...
33. Covergent Evolution
The process of which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another due to natural selection creating successful features in organisms.
feedback inhibition
(negative feedback)
- the result of hormone secretion inhibits further secretion
what is an exergonic reaction?
a reaction that releases energy
Central Vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
The ethic of mutuality...
Incorporates the ethic of objective knowing
not only are ionic compounds dissolves in water, but water can also dissolve __ molecules
nonionic polar molecules
Map Units
A unit of measurement of the distance between genes. One map unit is equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.
X-linked recessive
allele on X chomosome, so shows up usually inmales; a son cannot inherit from father
Trace Elements
Elements that make up less that 0.01 percent of your body mass.
active site
the part of an enzyme that interacts with the substrate during catalysis.
energy needed to digest your food - 10% - usually ignored
food induced thermogenesis
What is intrasexual competition?
Males or Females compete against one another (Male vs. Male or Female vs. Female) for territory or access to the opposite sex
Determined that plants are made of cells
Matthias Schlieden in 1838
Eukaryotic Cells Evolved into the Kingdoms of...
-Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia 
-prokaryotic cells make up the kingdom of Monera
What does semi-conservative replication mean?
the new DNA molecule consists of one "old" parent strand and one new strand (when DNA replicates and one DNA molecule "unzips" one strand from the original "parent" strand becomes the template for the new strand)
how does superoxide dismutase work
they have active sites that contain metal ions which combine two superoxide radicals with two protons to form hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen
intrinsic rate of growth
the rate at which a population would grow if there were no external limits on its growth. In ecology, this is often denoted as r.
Which of the following would be most useful for construction a phylogenetic tree for several fish?
several characteristics thought to have evolved after different fishes diverged from one another
We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their # of ______.
number of molecules.
What Phylum do bread mold belong in?
Zygomycetes belong in the Zygomuycetes group
In what ways did plants change to adapt to life on land?
o Developed roots for anchoring and absorptiono Waxy cuticles to decrease water losso Stomatas for gas exchange and water conservationo Lignin for structural support to grow highero Conductive tissue for transport

What is a synapse? What is the name of a cell that transmits a signal to another cell? What is the name of the cell that receives information?
The gap between two neurons. Presynaptic cell. Postsynaptic cell
the __ of genes is not corrleated to __ size
gene number is not correlated to genome size
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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