A.P. Euro 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Perestroika
Reconstructing
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Gulag Archipelago
Karl Marx
father of Communism
Warsaw Pact
Moscow's answer to NATO
Boris Pasternak
Nobel Prize winning author
Francois Mitterand
Socialist President of France
Goulash Communism
Communist system in Hungary
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's "battle for civilization," in which his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church
Comintern
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin, this organization wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
EEC
European Economic Community; usually called the Common Market, in 1957, six European nations signed the Treaty of Rome, which provided for the gradual abolition of tariffs and import quotas amon the six member nations. (France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxemberg.)
Berlin Wall
Existed from 1961 to 1989
Josip Broz Tito
Leader of Yogoslavia, 1945-1980
Clemente Attlee
Led Britain's postwar Labour Government
China
Diplomatically broke with Soviet Union in 1960
Konrad Adenauer
Chancellor of West Germany, 1949-1963
Christian Democrats
Conservative party in West Germany
Margaret Thatcher
Prime Minister of Britain, 1979-1990
Winston Churchill
Spoke of an "Iron Curtain"
Gastarbeiter
Foreign immigrant labor in West Germany
Magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
Suez intervention
After Egypt's President nationalized the Suez Canal, war broke out between Egypt and Israel. Britain and France intervened and took control of the canal it proved that without the support of the US the nations of Western Europe could no longer use millitary force to impose their will on the rest of the world,
First International
multinational group of socialists organized by Karl Marx in 1860s- short lived
Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state
Decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Little Entente
This alliance joined Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia against defeated and bitter Hungary. France was also closely associated with this alliance
Social Democrats
Left-wing political part in West Germany
Romania
Last communist state in Europe to reform
De-Stalinization
Krushchev's campaign at the 1956 Party Congress
Communists
Italy's second largest party for most of the postwar era
Fidel Castro
Seized power in Cuba in 1959
Nikita Khrushchnev
Soviet Premier from 1958 to 1964
Yugoslavia
Only Eastern European nation to retain independence
Willy Brandt
Social Democrat chancellor of West Germany, 1969-1974
Ludwig Erhard
West German Economic Minister and chancellor, 1963-1966
Frankfurt Parliament
Unsuccessful attempt to unify Germany in 1848. It intended to write a moderately liberal constitution for a unified Germany, but alienated conservatives, workers and liberals.
Five-Year Plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
Jean Jaures
lead socialists, gained seats in Chamber of Deputies from 1905 to 1914 when socialist parties in France unified themselves into single Marxist party
Yalta
When FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet; they agreed to wage war on Japan, to divide Germany into 4 equal parts, on the big 5's veto, and to hold free elections for the liberated countries
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
"Bloody Sunday"
Massacre of peaceful demonstrators in Saint Petersburg, marking the beginning of the Russian Revolution of 1905. The priest Georgy Gapon (1870 - 1906), hoping to present workers' request for reforms directly to Nicholas II, arranged a peaceful march toward the Winter Palace. Police fired on the demonstrators, killing more than 100 and wounding several hundred more.
Bolsheviks
The Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Weimar Republic
Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It was overthrown by the Nazi's
"island hopping"
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Dreyfus Affair
Anti-Semitic event involving a Jewish Captain in the French army who was falsely accused of treason. It severed ties between the church and the state.
Ausgleich
The "Compromise" of 1867 that created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Austria and Hungary each had its own capital, constitution, and legislative assembly, but were united under one monarch.
Club of Seven
Most wealthy and industrialized nation of the world
Red Army Faction
Revolutionary terrorist group of West Germany
European Recovery program
Better known as the "Marshall Plan"
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Revolution of 1848
The Year of Revolutions," Revolutions broke out all across Europe for that year, triggered by the French Revolution. They were all subdued, but they had some sort of long lasting effects. The people were probably upset that they were silenced and they had no voice, that's my guess.
Popular Front
was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
Compromise of 1867
The agreement between the Habsburg Emperor and the Hungarians to give Hungary considerable administrative rights to self-govern in 1867. Transformed the Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy.
Classical Economics
the idea that free markets can regulate themselves
Berlin Conference
a meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa
Carl Jung
Believed freuds theory was too narrow reflected with Freud's own personal biases. Studied dreams, unconscious was an opening to deep spiritual needs and ever greater outlook for human
Locarno Agreements
it guaranteed the protection of German borders and supported German membership in the League of Nations
Ethiopia
After being defeated the first time by Ethiopia, Mussolini invades, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
Brest Litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the RSFSR and the Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from World War I.
Louis Philippe
made a constitutional monarchy ( a monarch that is limited by a constitution). Due to corruption, he was forced to give up the throne
Lusitania
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Cuban Missle crisis
Most serious crisis of the Cold War
The Origin of Species
Darwins book; stated that evolution occoured by natural selection
Iron Law of Wages
proposed principle of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.
Guernica
picture of an attack on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War, in a market place
Hungarian revolt
When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.
Berlin Airlift
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
Heinrich Himmler
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
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