A.P. European History Key/Important Figures Flashcards

Terms Definitions
first estate
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical. , "I think, therefore I am."
Second Estate
nobility 3-4% of population
narrow-minded Catholics that were horrified that the Jesuits preferred to emphasize God's love and mercy rather than fear of death and hell
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755). wrote Spirit of the Laws
founded the Communist Party (bolsheviks) in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872); the first person that tried to unify all of Italy. He preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people. His brand of democratic republicanism seemed too radical for the people. Austria smashed his republicanism in 1848.,
French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
L'etat, c'est moi
"I am the State"
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679), believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority
French philosopher from 1712-1778 who believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by society
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466); e.g. David (girlier one, black stone)
Alexandra Kollontai
Russian revolutionary and diplomat, commissar for social welfare in 1918 and head of the women's section of the Communist Party
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmonteste king.
Price Revolution
increase in prices in 16th century-inflation-increased demand for goods-influx of gold and silver, a dramatic rise in prices (inflation). A major problem in europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, causes economic collapse in Spain, hurt domestic industries that were unable to export goods, Who: Europeans What: European prices increase after years of falling and stable prices When: 1540-1640 Where: Europe Why: weakened government, caused human suffering, inflation of prices throughout europe, 2-3% per year, food most subject to increases (wheat), 1590 = highest wheat prices in Meditteranean Europe. wages probably failed to keep up with increase, living standards drop, aristocrats prosper with rent high, so did entreprenuers, governments borrowed lots from banks which lead to lots of taxes, more discontent
Third Estate
the third estate of the realm
the father of humanism; A man sometimes called the father of Italian Renaissance humanism.
a finance minister under Louis XIV that applied mercantilism to France to help increase revenue
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564) and calvinism. involved in french reformation
Adam Smith
capitalism; invisible hand; , Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790). wrote wealth of nations in 1776 and instigated lassiez-faire
wrote The Prince; a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Medici Family
Dominating and wealthy family that ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Jean-Baptists Colbert
(August 29th, 1619 - September 6th, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Intendent System
Official appointed by the French crown under Louis XIV to administer a territorial département. Their powers were extensive but counteracted to some extent by other local officials. The term was also used for certain administrators in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America.
Sun King
Louis XIV; considered the center of French power; the center of the universe is the sun; most powerful king of his time; changed France; hated nobles because of noble revolt when he was young
Spanish Armada
defeated in 1588; beginning of the decline of the spanish empire; set up by Philip II; , the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Jean Boudin
first to provide a theoretical basis for absolutist states; wrote durig the chaos of French Civil Wars; only absolutism could provide order and force people to obey government
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Simone de Beauvoir
French feminist and existentialist and novelist (1908-1986
Benito Mussolini
Italian facism; , Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Napoleon Bonaparte
a french general who overthrew the French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
One of the great Italian artists. He was known as a master. He not only painted portraits, but also designed buildings, wrote poetry, and painted murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. frescoes
Copernicus (and Galileo)
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543). (and another of the same idea)
new royal palace built in shape of grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Lawrence-symbolized Philip's power and commitment to Catholic crusade
Versailles Palace
built during Louis XIV reign; part of Baroque structure; grandest an most imperssive palace in Europe; where Louis XIV kept the nobles busy; 1/3 mile long 1400 fountains
Adolf Hitler
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.WWII:1939-1945, Holocaust
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine
Emmiline Pankhurst
Leader of the WSPU (Women's Social and Political Union), which fought for women's sufferage in Britain.
British, radical, get women to vote!, Women's Social and Political Union, her followers were called suffragettes
Philip II
king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I
bishop bossuet
tutor of louis XIV who taught about the divine right of the monarchy, which helped secure louis' ideal of absolute monarchy
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Nobility of the Sword
the old fashioned nobility who gain their power by fighting for land. There was constant conflict between them and nobility of the robe.
Nobility of the Robe
new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy, became high officials in govt. and remained loyal to king
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders. Ruled after Glorious Revolution-1688
James II
the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland;, This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
James I
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
Henry IV of navarre
A politique whose rise to power ended the French Civil Wars; converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, but privately remained a Calvinist and issued Edict of Nantes
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