A.P. Government 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
unicameral
one-house legislature
Founders
Leaders are Founders
Bill
A Proposed Law
Preamble
introduction to the constitution
amendment 20
Presidential, Congressional Terms
i beni di consumo
consumer goods
Fourth Amendment
Unreasonable Search and Seizure
enumerated powers (of Congress)
Numbered powers
Loss Of Citizenship
Expatriation, Treason, Denaturalization
good
tangible economic product that is useful relatively scarce, transferable to others; used to satisfy wants and needs
6 years
term of a u.s. senator
Plea Bargain
Agreement between prosecution and defense that the accused will admit having committed a crime, provided that other charges are dropped and the recommended sentence is shortened.
Chief of State
Executive agreements, negotiate treaties, Recieve and appoint ambassadors
Pocket Veto
Presidential veto after congressional adjournment, executed merely by not signing a bill into law.
Critical elections
Signals changes in party support.
Gerrymandering
the redrawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
organized action to change opponents' behavior by refusing to buy or sell their goods
boycott
apportioned
seats in the house of represetatives are distributed among the states according to populations
service
work or labor performed for someone; economic product that includes haircuts, home repairs, forms of entertainment
Straw Polls
Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and policies.
Parliamentary Government
The Executive and Legislative branches are joined together
standing committee
(committee) permanent & considers fate of bills, 20 House/17 Senate, divided into subcommittees
party-in-the-government
all of the elected and appointed officials who identify with a political party
Media bias
Giving one candidate more favorable coverage than another. For example, in media campaign more viable candidate received more favorable coverage.
Group Theory
If power is distributed amongst several institutions many groups can influence power, members of democracy believe everybody is subject to the same laws but this is an ideal not reality
utilitarianism
goal of society the greatest happiness for the greatest number of its citizens
527 organization
organization that, under section 527 of the internal revenue code raises and spends money to advance political causes
Totalitarianism
an economic system in which the government has total control over the economy. The leader exercises unlimited power and individuals have no personal liberties or rights.
parlimentary gov.
executive and legislative branches are separate and coequal.
13th Amendment
1865; outlawed slavery and "forced labor" except as punishment for a crime
An agreement at the Constitutional Convention to c
Three-Fifths Compromise
Political Action Committee
committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates
amnesty
group pardon to people for an offense against the government, often in a military situation
How does a parliamentary system work?
Citizens elect------------> legislative select------------> executive
Calendar
a schedule that lists the order in which bills will be considered in Congress
Mixed Economy
an economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion; Gov'ts participation in the economy serves a two-fold purpose: to protect the public and to preserve private enterprise
precedent
a model on which to base later descisions or actions by
Equal Time Rule
The rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any.
regional security alliance
Agreements between the United States and foreign countries built on mutual defense treaties
Virgina Plan
Supported by larger states and wanted seats based on population of states and, This called for a national government that was strong. It had a legislative branch,executive branch and a judicial branch. It said that the legislative branch would have two houses and the seats would be awarded by population which meant that larger states would have more representation than the small states
Lemon test
Lemon v. Kurtzman to measure the constituionality of state laws in regard to establishment clause (3 pronged test)
What's is a system of government in which formal and effective limits are place on the power of government
democracy.
Confederation
a political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power.
THOMAS JEFFERSON
used ideals of the Enlightenment to compose the Declaration of Independence
The federalist
collection of 85 essays supporting the constitution
written by: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay
executive branch
the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
Watergate scandal
a scandal involving an illegal break in at the Democratic National Commitee offices in 1972 President Nixon
General Law Cities
Less than 5,000 in population. Limited powers. Cannot vote for charter.
Appellate jurisdiction
case heard on appeal from lower court (jurisdiction)
why is apportionment important?
so all states get represented fairly
government
a system of laws and leaders that help keep people safe and protect their rights
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire:
fighting words can be constitutionally limited
In John Kingdon's discussion of agenda setting, he argues that three streams must converge in order for a policy window to open. Which of these is not a stream that Kingdon is concerned with?
a. Policy Stream.
b. Problem Stream.
c. Political Stream.
d. So
d. Solution Stream
Articles of Confederation
this istated that the states would keep their freedom and independenct
solicitor general
3rd highest ranking offical of the us (represents the national gov b4 the supreme court)
• Constitutional law:
law based on the US constitution and the constitution of the various states
national convention
the meeting held every 4 years by each major party to select presidential and vice-presidential candidates, write a platform, choose a national committee, and conduct party business
popular sovereignty
What is the idea that the people are the ultimate source of their government's power?
Communist Control Act
A federal law enacted in 1954 which declared the Communist party to be part of a conspiracy to overthrow the government.
Have been increasingly important in defining the differences between the parties
In recent years, cultural issues
presidential vs congressional power
madison and hamilton "energy in the executive" need executive person, spokesperson, separation of powers and checks and balances
War Powers Resolution
A law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval.
After the Speaker of the House is...
Pro tempure of the senate
county executive committee
the party group, made up of a party's county chair and precinct chairs, that is responsible for running a county's primary elections and planning county conventions
Purpose - to provide and maintain public services on local level
collection of taxes for libraries, parks, public transportation
The Indian National Congress (Congress party)
- Started as upper-caste and elite members, educated in England. It was Gandhi who transformed the party into a mass movement .Leading force in shaping post-colonial politics .Helped instill liberal democratic values. Gandhi taught consensus building, nonviolence, obedience to democratic rule. Brought many under a single entity, forging a bond. Varshney makes the argument that Nehru took advantage of the institutional legacy left behind by Great Britain during its colonial years.
Supreme court hears a case when:
only when it has to do with constitutional rights
List some of the major roles of President. (13-1)
Chief of State, Chief Executive, Chief Administrator, Chief Diplomat, Commander in Chief, Chief Legislator, Chief of Party, Chief Citizen
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