A.P. Government 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to cancel
repeal
Lobbyist
Interest group reoresentative
libel
defaming person in writing
incumbent
 the current office holder.
clergy
officials who perform religious services
State & National
Protect public health
separation of powers
executive, legislative, and judicial powers are divided among three independent and coequal branches of government.
free market
free competition for voluntary exchange among individuals, firms, ad corporations
segregation
legal practice of separating the races
pardons
complete forgiveness of crime and punishment
Electoral college
A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. Although the electoral college vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winter-take-all rule gives clout to big states.
Pork barrel
derogatory term referring to appropriation of government spending for localized projects, bringing money to a certain area
Washington invited representatives from what two states to his home in 1785?
virginia and maryland
Deficit
The economic gap between what the government spends and what it takes in through taxes and revenue in a given year (i.e. the government spends more than it earns in a year).
 
 
 
US Constitution
US Constitution
Written in 1787 and Adopted in 1789
-James Madison is often called the Father of the Constitution
-Constitution is often called the "Supreme Law of the Land"
-It established the 3 branches of government and how they work
Three Parts:
1. Preamble: The Introduction
2. Articles: The body, established how each branch works
3. Amendments: Changes made
***First 10 Amendments are the Bill of Rights!***
passing laws.
Congress can informally amend the Constitution by ____.
militia
group of citizens who receive military training and who are called in emergencies
Majority tyranny
Suppression of the rights and liberties of a minority by the majority
Sergeant-at-arms
official in both houses who is responsible to bring in members who are absent and needed for a quorum
class consciousness
an awarenessof belonging to a particular socioeconomic class whose intersts are different from those of others. usually used in reference to workers who view thier interests as opposite of those of managers and business owners
Parkinson's Second Law
Expenditures rise to meet income
The Articles of Confederation gave too much power to the __________________.
states
interest group
A group of like-minded individuals united in the pursuit of a common goal or set of goals. In the political arena, an interest group seeks its goals through the legislative and / or legal processes.
Amendments
changes that have been approved and made part of the Constitution.
1st ammendment
right to religion, freedom of speech, or of the press, and the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government.
civil rights
right of citizens to be treated equally under the law; to have equality of opportunity
monetary policy
govn. policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
confederation
a joining of  several groups for a common purpose
15th Amendment
gives black males right to vote. prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Free enterprise
A substitute term for capitalism, used primarily in the United States. Private property is protected and decisions are made by firms and individuals operating in markets
How many died in the Civil War
623,000 Americans
Investigative journalism
The use of detective-like reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, putting reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders.
Judicial review
power of courts to declare laws unconstitutional
Selective Attention
Paying attention to only those news stories that you already agree with
O'Toole's Corollary to Murphy's Law
Murphy was an optimist
open primary
Election held for the purposes of choosing the nominee for a particular political party in which voters of any party are eligible to vote.
informal amendment
changes made to constitution that are not written.
Free Exercise Clause
Clause in the First Amendment that states that Congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion.
representative democracy
the people elect officials to do the work of the governenment; the elected officials represent those who elect them
How many member are in the House of Represenatives
435
Organization of Democratic party
organized nationally. liberal ( favor gov help) worry about poverty and social welfare
Powers of the Supreme Court

rule on constitutionality of

executive actions


laws



interpret treaties and laws
progression of case to supreme court
lowest- districtappeals- appellate state supreme
Political Authority over the Bureaucracy
shared by Pres and Congress
The President and Supreme Court were not part of which document and it created a weak government?
Articles of Confederation
Line-Item Veto
The power to veto only certain lines or items in a bill
property taxes
a tax based on the value of an individual's or a business's assets
united states v. cruikshank
Says 14th amendment only dealt with state problems/ but they couldn’t prosecute individuals/ so what about a Tennessee? Wit h lots of pl who are racist/ and the state officials are not going to get involved, then lynching’s not looked at/
Original Jurisdiction
court's power to hear a case b4 its considered by any other court
Constraints are greater on ____ than on ______
Government Agencies, Private Bureaucracies
who was chosen as the president of the 2nd continental congress?
john hancock
THis is a type of law that Congress cannot pass
ex post facto
process to remove judge
can be impeached; same process as for president
the Attorney General
what is the title of the head of the justice department?
Parkinson's Rule of Committees
a committee will spend as much time as necessary to perpetuate itself
Roosevelt and trying to pack the court
was not happy with court decision and tried to pass law to allow 15 justices (not 9) so that more would be in his favor; law not passed b/c may have gotten too powerful
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