A.P. psych exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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memes
self-replicating cultural mutations
Neuron
A single nerve cell.
Schizophrenia affects the neurotransmitter called
Dopamine
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter that enables muscle action, learning, and memory
Do mice readily self-administer nicotine?
yes
NOTE:Thurstone thought that simply thinking of intelligence as this g, this single construct, would make you overlook important distinctions that certain people have different levels of abilities in these certain areas
summarizing
reviews & highlights information discussed
marijuana
-most widely used illegal drug

-research has shown that it contains high levels of carcinogens

-can be hallucinogenic and sedative-like at high doses
embryo
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
timbre
a listener's experience of sound quality or resonance
personality disorder
disorder characterized by deeply ingained, inflexile patterns of thinking, feeling or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning
cerebellum
 the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
According to Maslow, the psychological need that arises after all other “D” needs have been met is the need for:
Self-actualization
motives
internal states or conditions that activate behavior and give it direction
Freud focuses
personality, motivation and abnormal behavior
Enviromental aspects that hinder intelligence include all of the following except:
intergenerational households
hypochondriasis
a long-lasting preoccupation with the idea that one has developed a serious disease, based on what turns out to be a misinterpretation of normal body reactions
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
linguistic relativity hypothesis
whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Schizophreniform disorder
Periods of disturbed behavior lasting 1-6 months
memory storage
the process of maintaining information in memory over time
Descriptive Method
Procedure for measuring or recording behaviors, thoughts, and feelings in their natural state (including naturalistic observations, case studies, archival studies, surveys, and psychological tests)
What part of the neuron contains neurotransmitter substances?
Vesicles
somatoform disorder
psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause
catatonic schizophrenia
a subcategory of schizophrenia. its main symptoms are peculiar motor patterns, such as periods in which the patient is immobile and maintains strange positions for ours on end then with no ev. becomes frenzied.
phrenology
a now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain
Post-conventional moral reasoning
(adults)-few reach this stage... personal standards and concept of justice 
personality tests
useful tools for assessing personality traits, single or multiple, characterize people into types (extro & intro)
biological perspective
research perspective whose major focus is how the brain, nervous system, and other physiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental processes
-\"Deep vs. Shallow Processing\"
-focusing on meaning of information as opposed to physical characteristics results in better storage
 -semantic
 -phonological/acoustic
 -orthographic/visual
Types of Long-Term Memory
sequential research
a research method that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time
proximal stimuli
input into sensory organs
EX: doors look 3 diff shapes but we know each are rectangles
reinforcement
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
retrieval
to get the info out of memory storage
Pattern of substance use that results in recurrent and significant adverse consequences associated with frequent use.
Substance Abuse
Midbrain-
an area in which many neverbe fiber system ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions of the brain.
IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF STIMULANTS
LAST 4-6 HOURS
COCAINE CRACK:
FEELINGS OF CONFIDENCE
FEELINGS OF CONTENTMENT
HEADACHES, DIZZINESS, RESLTESSNESS
STIMULATED AND ACCENTUATED SEXUAL FEELINGS
AMPHETAMINES:
SUPPRESSED APPETITE
EXCESS ENERGY
SUPPRESSION OF DESIRE TO SLEEP
 
Biological Psychology
The study of biological bases of psychological processes and behavior
NSG Interaction-Risk for violence directed at others
Observe patient's behavior-avoid appearing watchful or suspicious, remove dangerous objects, help patient identify the true object of his hostility, have sufficient ways of handling frustrations, administer tranquilizing meds or restraints if client doesn't calm down. Address early--the younger the better.
Personality changes in TLE
epilepsy characterized by partial rather than generalized seizures that typically originate in the temporal lobe and are marked by impairment of consciousness, automatisms, unusual changes in behavior, and hallucinations
Corporal punishment is associated with...
more immediate compliance
less moral internalization
more aggression
poor relationships (quality of parent-child relationship)
less mental health
higher likelihood of being a victim of physical abuse


 
 
 
How to Measure Memory
Relearning
 
 
 
Effort is saved in learning things that were previously learned
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (Some biological psychologists call themselves beahvioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body (not encased in bone)
outgroup homogeneity effect
the tendency for people to overestimate the similarity within groups to which they do not belong (especially if they dislike or don't understand/know about that particular outgroup)
Opiod treatment of intestinal disorders aim to
reduce colic
counteract diarrhea
reduce dehydration
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
Thalamus
The _____ is attached to the top of the brainstem, and the RAS passes through both structures.
Diffusion of responsibility
The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way.
third stage of labor
detachment and expulsion of the placenta from the uterus after childbirth
Within-class ability grouping
system of grouping in which students in a class are divided into two or three groups based on ability in an attempt to accommodate student differences
Relative Deprivation
The perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
the preconscious
everything we know but are not aware of at the moment(part of long term memory)
Assessment info is gathered to begin formulation of a strong pt database, and Nursing diagnoses are formulated in which phase
The orientation/introductory phase
false consensus effect
the tendency to assume that other people share our own attitudes and behaviors to a greater extent than is actually the case
Managing personnel resources (people)
-obtaining and allocating the right people
-developing people
-motivating people
-utilizing and monitoring people
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
-most who meet criteria for DSM diagnoses dont seek treatment
female orgasmic disorder
a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase and which causes personal distress
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by anotehr stimulus.
Brewer beeper study
When beeper went off recorded what you were doing. (broad base of memories)After delay given cue, mostly inaccurate.
stepping
around 2nd wk 58% will walk if held up right- lost by 5th mon
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
We make judgments based on picking our an estimate or anchor and we adjust that estimate to either higher or lowero Ex: when you’re estimating a check, you pick an anchor and adjust higher or lower from there based on how many drinks, meals, were ordered, etc.
sociocognitive theory of hypnosis
the behavior of a hypnotized person is a function of that person's expectations about how subjects behave under hypnosis
Physical changes that take place in middle adulthood: weight/body dimensions
• Middle age spread- slowed metabolism- increase in body fat and gradual loss of lean body mass (muscle)
• Gradual loss in bone mass and density- makes bones weaker
• Disks in spinal column move closer- shrinkage
Important factor in the strong addictive properties of crack cocaine
its rapid entry into the circulation (cocaine is lipophilic and smoking directs drug right to the brain)
Communication in the sports wold is often intense, emotional, and quick. Athletes need to learn to be thick-skinned and not personalize feedback they receive. Communication process (4)

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




o The
source/sender

o The
message

o The
channel: 7% verbal, 38% vocal emphasis, 55% facial expressions 

 *Kinesics
(body lang.), proxemics (personal space), paralanguage (nonverbal)

o The
receiver


What is the age range for children most at risk for Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP)?
15 months to 6 years old
How does the astrocyte know where the injury is?
A chemical is released signaling the astrocytes to the location.
You have decided to attend a costume party dressed as a neuron. Which of the following should NOT be a feature of your costume?
a. A wig on your head could represent myelin sheaths.
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Term:
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