A207 French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
2nd estate
nobility
hurler
to yell
The Mountain
??
Third Estate
everyone else
Jacobins
radical political organization
Suffrage
The right to vote
philisophes
intellectuals of the enlightenment
guillotine
machine for beheading people
drought
Cause of food shortages.
The 100 days
Napoleon's brief comeback
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Estates
the social classes in pre-Revolutionary France
nationalism
spread in italy, germany, greece
Gabelle
A French tax on salt
Steps of the French Revolution...
...
radical
far left of political spectrum
Robespierre
Radical leader during the French Revolution responsible for the Reign of Terror; wanted to create a 'Republic of Virtue', was eventually guillotined.
Consulate
the office, jurisdiction, or residence of a consul
causes of the French Revolution
Enlightenment
increasing poverty
population
foreign wars
Estates General
legislative body in pre-revolutionary France made up of reps from each estate, giving each estate 1 vote (1st & 2nd Estate = 3% of pop., 3rd estate= 97%)
Calonne
financial advisor in 1788(bad crop year), asked nobles to compromise and pay taxes at Assembly of Notables, but failed to gain support, king forced to call estates-general
Maximilian Robespierre
The leader of the jacobins
1793
1792
April: France declares war on Austria
April: First use of the Guillotine
June: Sansculottes invade Royal Palace
August: Overthrow of the Monarchy
September: September Massacres
September: Jacobins apply pressure to replace Legislative Assembly with a National Convention
September: Declaration of the French Republic
chasiers de doleances
grievances against the king
Lycee
a government-run public school in France
Assignats
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
tumbrel
a two-wheeled wooden cart used to transport prisoners to the guillotine
Bourgeoisie
A term for the educated middle classes, who aspired to greater social position prior to the French Revolution. They were grouped collectively with peasants and urban workers in the 'Third Estate'
Charles Calonne
became head of Finances after Necker
Spain
The first country to revolt against Napoleon's domination
Fouche
Appointed by Napoleon as Minister of Police. Had been an Hebertist during Rev. and helped in fall of Robespierre. Previously been an obscure professor of physics. Established a secret police institution for Napoleon to keep him informed.
Maximillion Robespierre
french revolutionary he sent suspected traitors to the quillotine during the reign of Terror from 1793 until his own death by quilitine in 1794
Catholic Church
Largest religion during the French Revolution; Very powerful
3rd constitution- 1795
not radical
-creates directory- 5 directors who are the executives who rule the country
-property is required to vote and hold office- victory for the bourgeoisie
-similar to the first constitution
Napoleon Bonaparte
born in Corsica; general in revolutionary army; expedition to Egypt: failed, defeated by Admiral Nelson; named himself "first consul" after coup d'etat;
Cahiers
list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general
taille
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
Emigrés
people who leave one country for another
Jacques Necker
French statesman and finance minister of Louis XVI, he proposed that the King hold a Royal Session in an attempt to conciliate the divided Estates.
First Estate
Clergy; church workers such as priests
Robespierre.
def of rep virtue. supported by sans-culottes. policis of terror in the name of a republic. made people nervous. stood up to talk and shouted him down. executed him
Treaty of Tilsit
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
Tithes
10% of income is paid to the church
great fear
resulting from rumors that nobles were attacking villages and towns, government troops were seizing peasant crops and attempting to reimpose medieval dues
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army. Inspired by the American Revolution and supported the revolution in France
plebiscite
ballot in which voters say yes or no
Edmund Burke
In Reflections of the Revolution in France, he forecast problems as those without political experience attempted to govern
Grand Alliance
Everyone gangs up to defeat Napoleon after he is severly weakened by attempt to take Russia, they exile him to Elba, unwilling to kill him and make him a martyr
habeas corpus
person cant g2 prison without being charged with a specific crime, the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
bastille
the fall of the _____ signified the start of the french revolution
Effects of the War
Newspapers, political clubs, and neighborhood meetings as ordinary people start participating in the war effort --> makes rev a nat'l cause, opponents = traitors
haratio nelson
Beat napoleon on the battle of Trafalgar?
Alexander the I
Represented Russia at Congress of Vienna
The Hundred Days
how long Napoleon's second rule lasted
continetal system
the policy where Napoleon put up blockages
Abbe Perigord (Talleyrand)
A French politician who represented the first estate during but supported the liberal revolution. He was Napoleon's foreign minister and was involved in the creation of the Treaty of Amiens. In 1804, Napoleon promoted him to the position of Grand Chamberlain. He often disagreed with the severity of Napoleon's decisions.
Marie Antoinette
The queen of Louis XVI, nicknamed "Madame Defecit" due to her excessive spending habits.
inflation
when money or goods are worthless or worth less
Split in Legislative Assembly
Conservative- Louis XVI; Moderates- limited monarchy; Jacobins/Radicals- "Republic of virtue"; want more change; Robespierre is part of the Jacobins
The old European monarchies were reestablished by what agreement?
Congress of Vienna
Reign of terror
The result of, "Prompt, severe, inflexible justice." Lasted a year. Courts conducted hasty trials.
louis XV1
divine right French monarch at the time of the French Revolution
Hundred Days
Period of time from Napoleons return from Elba island to Louis XVII's reign
Levée en masse
A military requisition on the entire population, conscripting males into the army and directing economic production to military purposes.
Napoleonic Wars
a series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times
Goals of the Estates General
Individual liberties guarenteed by law, improved economic position of the parish clergy, and economic development reforms.
August 27, 1789
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
Legion of Honor
A French medal, originally issued by Napoleon , it was the first modern military order of merit and was meant to help replace knighthood and feudal institutions.
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak
Austerlitz
also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's greatest victories, effectively destroying the Third Coalition against the French Empire. On December 2, 1805 (November 20, Old Style), a French army, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, decisively defeated a Russian, Austrian army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I
Maximillian Robespierre
A Jacobin who led the Committee of Public Safety and wanted to kill any opposers to the revolution
John Locke
He had an optimistic view on humans. he believed people are moral.
Napoleon
"I love power as a musician loves his violin"
Legislative Assembly
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
Constitution of 1793
Never put into effect; provided for elected legislature
march of versaille
-led by fishmonger's wives in rev
-> royal fam return to paris
General Maximum
Extended the Law of Suspects to most other areas of the revolutionary French economy.
Tennis Court Oath
the 3rd estates general wouldntn leave until a new constitution was set up
in the new constitution, who can vote?
wealthy middle class
Battle of Jena
To punish Prussia for joining the Third Coalition, Napoleon engaged in this battle. He obliterated the Prussian army and occupied their capital city of Berlin.
III. Continued Trouble in France- French Radicals Spread the revolution through France- French Radicals attacked Austria- 20,000 Peasants invaded the Royal Palace- 900 swiss Guards were killed- Louis, Marie Antoinette, and children were thrown In prison
IV. Continued Change.......- Legislative Assembly is dissolved- National Convention- Body That Creates the Government- Elected Body To Govern France- Drafted a new Constitution- 1. Gave Power to Middle Class- 2. Created Congress- 3. Created the Directory- Executive Body of Five men to make Decisions
Committee of Public Safety
given broad powers to defend France from threats
Cult of the Supreme Being
form of deism, Robespierre, intended to become state religion after revolution
Flight to Varense
when Louis the 16th tried to escape with Marie Antoinette to Austria, but they were captured
TREATY OF CAMPO FORMIO
Between Austria and France, Oct 17 1797. Incorporated Napoleon's ideas. Truce on continent. Austrian recognition of French annexation of Belgium, Lt bank of Rhine and Cisalpine Republic. In return Austria got Venice and Venetia. France got Ionians Islands.
committee for public saftey
12 man counsil, headed by robespierre, executes enemies of the republic
the reign of terror
origins: civil revolt (vendee) and war with austria and prussia
-organized vioilence to make terror to bring order
-law of suspects
-no political parties
-law of the maximum
-intellectual foundation is general will
-using terror to get the general will
King Louis XIV
King of France, built the palace of Versailles, absolute monarch
Marie Antionette
Married Louis XVI and was the Queen of France during the Reign of Terror. The pair tried to escape France in June 1791, during the Woman's march on Versailles, but were caught, arrested and brought back to Paris. They were then forced to live among the people who hated them most: the poor city folk whose hatred for her was fueled by the Queen's lavish lifestyle during the time they were starving. She was later convicted of treason and executed.
The Republic of Virtue
In this speech, Robespierre provided a comprehensive statement of his political theory while advocating the use of terror in defending democracy, which he equated with virtue.
Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
after negotiations with Alexander I of Russian, Napoleon redrew the map of Europe;Napoleon established himself as the head of a "Grand Empire"in Europe; he had already crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804
Lettre De Cachet
cachet: a warrant formerly issued by a French king who could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal
Two separate spheres
the idea that men and women existed in two separate spheres, men were to be citizens and political workers while women were fit only for demestic life and motherhood
Thermidorian Reaction 95
During the ____ __ of 17__ the leader of the Mountain was arrested and executed by his own party.
declarations of rights of man and the citizen
french bill of rights
Madame Jeanne Roland
also served as a leader in the women's rights movement
Declaration of Pillnitz (War declared on Austria, April 20,1792)
The King Austria declared he would consider it an act of war if any harm came to the King or his family. He would invade if anything did.
What is the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
a statement of revolutionary ideals
What countries were negotiators in the congress of Vienna?
-France, Great Britian, Austria, and Russia
What were the stages of Napoleon's power-grab?
General to Directory to Three Man Counsel to Emperor
declaration of the rights of man
-men are born and remain free and equal in rights
-liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression
-equal justice, freedom of speech, freedom of religion
-the slogan
Be able to link the discovery of the New World to the storming of the Bastille.
The French stormed Bastille because they were angry because they were deprived of their rights and they saw other people revolutionizing and decided to do it themselves.
describe the 3 principles that guided the cogress of vienna
1- Balance of power: no one country could ever control europe again; 2- Compensation: payment (cash); and 3- Legitamacy: restore europe's royal families to the thrones
louis xvi's response to the tennis court oath
louis xvi says he's going to use force with the 3rd estate
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