ABA Flashcards

problem behavior
Terms Definitions
Four Fold Contingency Table
empiricism
scientific objective observation of phenomena of interest
indepdendent variable
the variable systematically manipulated by the researcher (in ABA sometimes called intervantion or treatment variable)
Control
Highest level of scientific understanidng from which funtional relations can be derived (change in dependent variable predicts independent variable without confouding variables
parsimony
the simplest explanations must be ruled out before more complex explanations are considered
Target Behavior Definitions
accurate, complete, concise, inclusions, exclusions
 
objective, clear, complete
positive reinforcement
targeted response increases when stimulus is added to environment
behavioral contrast
when something is indirectly changed
compound schedules
combined elements of of continous reinforcement, the four intermittent schedules of reinforcement, differential reinforcement of various rates of responding and extinction
confounding variable
an uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the dependent variable
Stimulus
an energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells
time-out
a form of negative punishment- the contingent withdrawel of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a specified time
 
 
 
 

ethical codes of behavior


Ch 23
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statements that provide guidelines for members of professional associations when deciding a course of action or conducting professional duties; standards by which graduated sanctions(e.g.,reprimand, censure, expulsion) can be imposed for deviating form the code.
fading
 
 
 
 
 
Ch 19
A procedure for transferring stimulus control in which features of an antecedent stimulus  9e.g., shape, size, position, color,) controlling a behavior are gradually changed to a new stimulus while maintaining the current behavior; stimulus features can be faded in (enhanced) or faded out (reduced).
Discriminated operant procedure
Discriminate operants = components2 component multiple schedule paradigmEach component has 2 response alternatives, each response alternative is associated with its own schedule
variable ratio schedule
varying number of responses required for reinforcement
- no post reinforcement pause, consistant steady rate of responding
variable interval schedule
reinforcement provided for the first correct response following the elapse of variable surations of time occuring in random order
- produces slow to moderate consistant responding
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time since the last response was reinforced
- produces scalloped data (post reinforcement pause, increase in response rate as interval increases)
Three levels of understanding in science
1) Description
2) Prediction
3)Control
 
 
 
functional analysis   (as part of functional behavior assessment)
 
 
           Ch 24
An analysis of the purposes (functions) of problem behavior, wherein antecedents and consequencesrepresenting those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured; typically consists of four conditions: three test conditions - contingent attention, contingent escape, and alone- and a control condition in which problem behavior is expected to be lowbecause reinforcement is freely available and no demands are placed on the person.
momentum metaphor
the persistence of behavior is similar to the momentum of a moving object, increased momentum results in shallower slope of decline during extinction condition
generalization decrement hypothesis
takes behavior longer to contact extinction contingency following intermittent schedule. CRF --> extinction easier to discriminate and produces a decrement in generalization
Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE)
resistance to extinction increases (shallower slope) , need additional trials with extinction to learn that contingencies have changed
indirect measurement
when phenomena measured is in some way different from target behavior of interest (using questionairre about behavior)
intermitant reinfocement
some, but not all, occurances of a behavior produce reinforcement
guidelines for using punishment effectively
select effective and appropriate punishers
use the least intensity of punishment that is effective
experience the punishment personally
deliver the punishment immediately
deliver the punishment at the beginning of the response chain
deliver the punishment unemotionally
punish each instance of the behavior
watch for possible side effects of punishment
record, graph and evaluate daily data
partial interval recording
the observer records if the behavior occured at any time during the interval
DRO (differential reinforcement of other Bx)
Reinforcement at intervals contingent on absence of TBwhole interval - Prob Bx must be absent whole time for Srmomentary - problem Bx must be absent at end of interval for SR
fixed ratio schedule
a fixed number of responses must occur before reinforcement
- produces "break and run" step pattern
duration measurement
the amount of time in which a behavior occurs
Procedural variations of extinction
1.) positive reinforcer is no longer delivered after behavior2.) the aversive stimuli is no longer removed after behavior.
Three ways of assessing social validity
1) social significance of target behavior
2) appropraiteness of procedures
3) social importance of results
when would NCR increase problem behavior
when chance occurs, problem behavior inadvertently reinforced by chance, form an INCIDENTAL Sr
Benefits of resistance to extinction
allows the behavior in question to be sufficiently resistant to change so that it continues during transition from treatment contingencies to natural contingencies of everyday life
how are DRL, DRO, and DRA related conceptually to Hernsteins hyperbola?
problem behavior has a low re so:- reinforced behavior increases more rapidly- Sr maintains more Bx's
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