ABA final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
positive reinforcement
IOA for time sampling
construct an equal interval graph
Alternating treatment designs are appropriate when:

Ch 29
Behaviors, practices and decisions that address such basic and fundamental questions as: What is the right thing to do? What's worth doing? What does it mean to be a good behavior analytic practitioner?
collection of facts about observed events that be quantified, classified and examined or possible relation with other known facts (hypothesis)
Identify behavior change in graphed data
negative punishment
behavior decreases because stimulus contingently removed from environment
functionally equivalent
Ch 24
Serving the same function or purpose; different topographies of behavior are functionally equivalent if they produce the same consequences.
Generalized matching equation
assymetrical choice situations, addresses whether subjects prefer one alternative over another (that is not explained by schedule)Plotting logs, still linear
Operant Conditioning
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement or punishment contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
continuous reinfocement
reinforcement for each occurance of the target behavior
response cost
loss of specific amount of reinforcement contingent upon inappropriate behavior and results in decreased future probability of that behavior
general case analysis
Ch 28
A systematic process for identifying and selecting teaching examples that represent the full range of stimulus variations and and response requirements in the generalization setting(s).  (See also multiple exemplar training and teaching sufficient examples.)
functional behavior assessment (FBA)
Ch 24
A systematic method of assessment for obtaining information about the purposes (functions) a problem behavior serves for a person; results are used to guide the design of an intervention for decreasing the problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior.
extinction burst

Ch 21
An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially imposed.
sensitivity greater than 1, Bx is sensitive to change in Sr
S delta
any antecedent stimulus that is present when the behavior is not reinforced
Nevin Study
Used a 3-component multiple schedule, daily training of 3 discriminated operants separated by time-out periods. Each component had own discriminative stimulus, behavior and reinforcement schedule.
rate/frequency measurement
 ratio of (number of responses per unit of time) count per observation period, more meaningful than count alond
three elements of baseline logic
1) Prediction
2) Verification
3) Replication
events do not just occur, but happen in a systematic way, all phenomena occur as result of other events
formal similarity
Ch 25
A situation that occurs when the controling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product (a) share the same sense mode (e.g., both stimulus and response are visual, auditory, or tactile) and (b) physically resemble each other.  The verbal relations with similarity are echoic, coping a text, and imitation as it relates to sign language.
fixed-interval DRO (FI-DRO)
Ch 22
A DRO procedure in which reinforcement is available at the end of intervals of fixwd duration and delivered contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during each interval .  (See differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO).)
feature stimulus class
Ch 17
Stimuli that share common physical forms or structures (e.g., made from wood, four legs, round, blue) or common relative relationships(e.g., bigger than, hotter than, higher than, next to).  (Compare to arbitrary stimulus class.)
how to plot CSA
calculate B+C/B for each consequenceplot on graph with abscessa as p(consequence/no target behavior) and ordinate as p(consequence/target behavior)following treatment data points shift clockwise
intercept in plotting logs, no bias = 0, constant preference for one alternative not explained by relative Sr rate
external validitiy
the degree to which a study's findings have generality to other subjects, settings and/or behaviors
stimulus preference assessment
a variety of procedures used to determine the stimuli that a person prefers, the relative preference of those stimuli and their presumed value as reinforcers
3-term contingency
basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior,
antecedent- behavior- consequence
response magnitude
the force or intensity with which a response is emitted
Stimulus Control definition
A behavior is under stimulus control -> increased probability that the behavior will occur in the presence of a specific antecedent stimulus or a stimulus from a specific stimulus class. Behavior more likely to occur in Sd presence but not S delta
conditions when punishment is more effective
- immediacy, intensity, schedule, reinforcement for the target behavior, reinforcement for alternative behaviors
whole interval recording measurement
the observation period is divided into a series of brief time intervals.  At the end of each interval the observer records whether the behavior occured for the WHOLE interval
experimental analysis vs. applied behavior analysis of behavior
basic research vs. development of technology for improving behavior
Parameters of momentum
Velocity - rate of behavior before EXT (promotes)mass - amount of Sr associated with the component (Sd--> Sr pairings) promotesfriction - nonreinforcement during EXT (Hinders)brakes - discriminability of EXT (hinders resistance to extinction)
guidelines for using response cost effectively
determine immediacy of the fine, decide whether bonus respose cost is preferred option, ensure reinforcer reserve, recognize the potential for unplanned or unexpected outcomes, avoid overusing, keep good record on effects
cells in 2x2 contingency as probability
A: contiguity with target behavior (behavior is contacting Sr) CRFB: Behavior with no consequence (gray area)C: consequence with no behavior or with non target behavior (gray area)D: no behavior and no consequence (perfect contingency, depend.)
level (in a data series)
value on vertical axis around which a series of data points converge
what types of learning histories lead to learned helplessness
NCR/FTS can lead to LHUncontrollable rule: history of no contingencies leads to a suppression of responding, you're biased to see consequences as uncontrollable, when they might be, not sampling cells A and B
construct a split-middle line of progress
A line drawn through a series of graphed data points that shows the overall trend in the data; drawn through the intersections of the vertical and horizontal middles of each half of the charted data and then adjusted up or down so that half of all data points fall on or above and half fall on or below the line. (pg153 in book)
how does one interpret two parameters of K and area under the curve
smaller K = more area under the curve, less discounting, hold out for better reinforcmentlarger K = less area under the curve, more discounting (take smaller, sooner)
type of TIMEOUT 
remains in room but looses access to preferred activities
 identify a specific relationship between the completion of a specific behav a and a specific reward
1.      Before using punishment procedures what are the important points to remember about decreasing behavior?
to enhance stimulus generalization, identify the key ppl and places and train in their presence
ie train at home w mom around and in classroom w teach
Define DRO
Differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) refers to a procedure in which positive reinforcement is delivered as long as the person does not display or engage in the target behavior.  Target may be fighting – so in this instance the target is what not to do!
a type of token economy
increase the amount of responsibility and the rewards of the student in phases until finally they are doing alot of self monitoring and have alot of responsibility
1.      What type of contingency is escape conditioning (of the 4 procedures on the box)?
Negative reinforcement
something is added to decrease behav
remains in room but looses access to preferred activities and u have to watch your peers engage-ie u have to watch ur friends eating ice cream  
In order for restitutional overcorrection programs to be effective, restitution must be
Related to excessive behavior
all kids in group must meet crtieria before ANYONE can get reinforcer
4 classes of procedure are;
1. behavoral contract
2.  token economy
3.  group oriented contingencies
4.  self management
Define restitution overcorrection
A punishment procedure in which the person must provide restitution for engaging in excessive behavior.

When is positive reinforcement delivered in a DRA program?
In order to receive reinforcement the person must engage in a specific target behavior
1.      What are the advantages of a positive practice over correction?
            Rapid decrease in behavior
            Long lasting behavior change
            Promotes generalization
3 aspects of a TOKEN ECONOMY are;
1.  behaviors involved are first defined
2. a medium of exchange is established
ie stars/checks
3.  backup reinforcer that can be purchased w tokens must be established
1.      Define response cost?
Punishment procedure in which x amount of reinforcers is removed following the occurrence of a excessive behavior.
1.      In order for extinction, time out, and response cost programs to be effective, what is necessary?
Reinforcers are identified and controlled
1.      Define time-out?
Timeout is when the opportunity to be reinforced is removed for a time
1.      What is escape conditioning?
Removal from an aversive stimuli or environment
1.      How do you implement an extinction program?
 Identify and control all reinforcers
Maintain extinction long enough for the behavior to decrease
The excessive behavior tends to increase before it decreases
Spontaneous recovery may occur

1.      How do you implement a DRA program?
  Alternative behavior must be incompatible with present behavior
The alternative behavior must be in the person repertoire
The alternative behavior should be practical, functional, and likely to be maintained through natural consequences of the environment
The use of principles of positive reinforcement to reinforce the behavior
1.      How do you implement a positive practice over correction?
Overcorrection must be relevant to inappropriate behavior
Over correction procedures must be applied immediately and consistently
Arrange environment to prevent escape
1.      What is meant by the “condition of a new aversive stimulus?”
A stimulus that was previously reinforced that is no longer reinforced may become an aversive stimulus.
1.      How do you implement a restitutional overcorrection program?
Overcorrection must be relevant to inappropriate behavior
            Overcorrection must fit crime
            Overcorrection must be applied immediately and consistently
            Overcorrection must be meaningful to the person
1.      In order for the response cost programs to be effective it is necessary to have the opportunity to ...
earn positive reinforcers and have a reinforcer reserve
1.      What is the golden rule regarding behavior?
Punishment procedure in which x amount of reinforcers is removed following the occurrence of a excessive behavior.
1.      How can time out be both a positive and negative reinforcer?
Timeout can both apply and remove reinforcement
What does it mean when we say DRA approaches are directly related to the principles of positive reinforcement?
Ability to deliver reinforcement are directly related to the successful implementation
1.      How do you implement a response cost program?
Communicate rules of the game so that they know how to earn the reinforcers
The person must have a reinforcement reserve
The person must be able to earn reinforcers for appropriate behavior
1.      How long should time-out be?
Till the subject is calm and quiet for 2 consecutive minutes
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