A10 Rocks Minerals Flashcards

Terms Definitions
bauxite
...
Minerals
naturally inorganic
almandine (garnet)
...
Solidifying
Magma forming rock
Cleavage
Splitting into sheets
Limestone
clay color; rough
Hardness: Hard
Luster: Earthy
Description: Piece of a boulder
gneiss
Example of metamorphic rock.
Orthoclase
Color: Orange, Salmon
Streak: White
Luster: Vitreous
Hardness: 6
Cleavage: Good, 2 Directions about 90 Degrees
Crystal Habit: Blocky
ELEMENTS FOUND: Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Si, O
FOUND IN WHICH IGNEOUS ROCKS: Gabbro, Basalt, Diorite, Granite, Feldspar
*Looks like Marble
Diorite
IGNEOUS; Phaneritic texture, plutonic origin, intermediate composition (salt and pepper)
lithification
converts sediment into rock, compaction caused by pressure generated from weight of overlying sediment, cementation is binding of sediment by mineral agents. Common cementing agents hematite, limonite, calcite and silica
mineral
naturally occuring stubstance, neither plant or animal, a solid substance usually dug from earth
quartzite
Quartz grains
Commonly used in ancient buildings as a substitute for sandstone
sediments
small, solid pieces of material
Foliated, Metamorphic rock, shiny [mica] smoother
Phylite
extrusive rocks
volcanic; solidifies at the surface
batholith
large underground magma chamber - often eventually rises to the surface (ex: coastal BC mountains)
texture
how a rock looks and feels
organic
sedimentary rocks made of material created by living things
rock
solid inorganic material that is usually made of two or more minerals and can be metamorphic, sedimentary, or igneous
basalt
extrusive igneous, usually forms as lava flow
fine-grained
found as bedrock, also common on moon/Mars
used (crushed) in construction
magma
liquid rock beneath the earth's surface
mantle
the middle layer of the Earth
Silicate
Mineral containing silicon and oxygen and usually one or more additional elements.
Classification
the process of grouping things based on their similarities
Obsidian
sometimes appears black, but is felsic in composition
Protons
Positive, located in the nucleus, the same as the atomic number
Fluorescence
When a mineral glows under ultraviolet light.
conglomerate
A detrital sedimentary rock that is made of mixed pebbles cemented together is called a __________.
coal
source for over half the electric power
Weathering.
The process by which natural forces break down rocks and minerals.
Rocks and Minerals
Rocks are made from minerals.
igneous
rock formed when melted rock material cools and hardens
investigate
To study something cloesly and in organized way.
Hardness
Is determined by using a scratch test.
siltstone
The four types of detrital sedimentary rocks are shale, __________, sandstone, and conglomerate.
Sedimentary rock is formed from small __________ and in ___________.
grains
layers
luster
describes the way light reflects off of a mineral (the type of shine)
Most minerals contain ....
silicates (Si & O)
Biological action
This is when some sedimentary rock forms from the remains of plants and animals (organic)
ore
a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit
element
substance composed of one kind of atom - for example oxygen O2
basaltic
Rocks that have small crystals and are high in iron, magnesium, or calcium are called __________ rocks.
igneous rock
A rock that forms when completely melted rock hardens
sediment
sand, particles of rock, bits of soil, and remains of once-living things
Sedimentary Rock
layered rock made from sediments that are compacted and cemented.
Atom
The smallest part of an element that has all of the properties of that element
Fossil
the remains of a once living thing (organic) that help tell us how life has changed over time
silicates
any one of numerous minerals that have the oxygen and silicon tetrahedron as their basic structure
rocks are classified into groups based on how ______
they're formed
Extrusive Igneous Rock
A fine-grained rock that is formed when magma cools quickly on Earth's surface
5 characteristics of minerals
hard - solid, natural, inorganic, definite composition, crystalized chemical structure
Hot rock from the mantle can reach:
the volcano eruption
metamorphism
The process by which any kind of rock is changed into metamophic rock.
crystal
a solid with flat faces and a regular geometric shape
Crystal Shape
The shape of a sample of a mineral
specific gravity
the density of a mineral compared to the density of water
streak
the color left behind when you rub a mineral against a tile
What are carbonates?
group of minerals that contains 1 carbon atom and 3 oxygen atoms
What drives metamorphism?
1. Heat- provides the energy to drive the chemical reactions that result in metamorphism
2. Pressure- results deformation
3. Chemically reactive fluid (hot H2O + CO2)
Where are metamorphic rocks found?
Deep underground and by plate boundaries
Rock forming minerals
one of the most common minerals that make up the rocks of Earth's crust
quarry
A deep pit where stone is cut out of the ground.
metamorphic rock
Look at the rock cycle on page 185 in your book. In this diagram what does igneous rock change into when it is heated and squeezed?
What is a tetrahedron?
a four-sided solid, each side being a triangle
What are metamorphic rocks?
a rock that has been changed by heat, pressure or both
What happens to the lava from a volcano?
it cools and hardens and then forms igneous rocks.
/ 66
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online