Abnormal 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A
A
Temporal Lobe
Hearing
 
 
 
Learning disorders
(3)
Dyslexia
Mathematics disorder
Disorder of written expression
Frontal Lobes
-Perception-Develop last
APD requires
4 of 7
Shaping
reinforcement successively coser approximations of a goal behavior until it is displayed
claustrophobia
fear of enclosed spaces
139) Which personality disorder revolves around a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others, including family members and friends?
Paranoid
Obesity is a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis.
False
Boderline PD prev rates
2 percent
Paraphilia
Sexual attraction, arousal, and gratification brought about by unusual means or situations
Panic
Sudden, overwhelming fright or terror
symptoms of anxiety
-Blood pressure rises-sweat-tense-stomach ache-you get klutzy-shortness of breath
Hypomania
-Less extreme form on mania
Bipolar (General basis)
Depression alternating w/mania
PTSD Symptoms
-Re-exposure of traumatic event-Avoidance of stimuli-Increased arousal (insomnia, irritability, etc.)
Psychosurgery
surgical destruction of specific regions of the brain
DSM-IV
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistacal Manual of Mental Disorders a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders presently distributed in an updated text revision
Hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
social phobia
-aka social anxiety disorder
-an intense fear of social situations that they may avoid them altogether or endure them only with great distress
-underlying problem is excessive fear of being negavtively judged by others
-fear doing or saying something humiliating or embarassing
-severly critical of their own social skills and become focused on evaluating their own performance in social interactions
-can experience panic attacks in social situations
PDs cause..
significant functional impairment or subjective distress
Some people always think that everyone is looking at them and talking about them. This self-focused view of the world would be expected in someone with ________ personality disorder.
narcissistic
atypical antipsychotics
newer version; target negative symptoms (not positive)
Pica/Rumination disorder
Excessive eating of nonnutritive substances (dirt, paint).Repeated regurgitation and rechewing of food
 
 
 
Asperger's Syndome

High functioning autism – impaired social functioning and other stereotyped behavior, but no mental retardation and no language deficits (but qualities of language are still strange)
Think of a spectrum with Asperger’s on the lesser end and autism on the greater end.
 
Transference
A process that occurs during psychotherapy, in which patients act toward the therapist as they did or do toward important figues in their lives
a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular event.
Attributional Style
parietal lobe
receives and integrates sensory information and also plays a role in spatial reasoning.
symbolic loss
under the pscyhodynamic
Freud theory of the reason a person gets depress after lossing a valued object (example loss of employment) which can be uncousciosly interpret as the loss of a loved one.
 ALSO CALLED IMAGINESS LOSS
personality disorders
well-established maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people's ability to function
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-extensive uncontrolled worry, tension, fatigue, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance~ 3 of these for 6 months to be diagnosed-1 year prevalence, high among elderly-early onset-runs in families-Tx: Benzodiazepines and CBT (targets worry process, builds tolerance for feelings)
DTs
Withdrawal sx experienced by VERY heavy drinkersConfusion, convulsions, hallucinations, and fever*Could be fatal
PTSD Prevalence/Etiology/Treatment
Prevalence:
 
8% of Americans have experienced ptsd in their life
more common in women than in men
 
 
Psychodynamic: underlying problem
Cognitive/Behavioral: avoid powerful memories, however, it will help them if they are exposed to those memories in a safe place (like a therapists office)
 
Treatment:
-SSRIs
Anal Stage
Psychosexual stage that occurs between the ages of 18 months and three years; focus of gratification is the anus, and children are interested in toilet activiies; parents can cause children to be fixated in this stage by being to harsh and critical during toilet training.
Flooding S.D.
Full intensity while preventing avoidance until conditioned response is extinguished
140) Antisocial
personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others.
Compulsions
Repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel they must perform in order to prevent or reduce
Autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others' states of mind
The rates of ______ among anxiety disorders are high because they share the common features of anxiety and panic.
Comorbidity
Concordance Rate
percentage of twins sharing the disorder or trait.
Hawaiian and Native American Indians
have highest prev
epidemiology
the scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population
Etiology of DIs
theory and speculation dominate because little systematic research has been done
Titchner
Psychology should stay a pure science, wanted to describe contents of the mind like we describe contents of the body
 
 
 
 
Conduct disorder
Behaviors that violate the basic rights of others adn the norms for social behavior
general paresis
a degenerative brain disease occurring when the bacterium that causes syphilis directly invades brain tissue
Negative feedback
Acts to maintain a system current level of functioning or homeostasis. Negative feedback acts to correct system in trouble and restore equilibrium.  
Psychosocial Treatment
Psychosocial intervention based of the belief that Schizophrenia disorder results from problems in adapting to the world because of early experiences. Behavioral approaches based off incentives were set up in inpatient units (Token Economy). Community Care Programs, Social and Living Skills training and vocational rehab.
Percent with OCD that also have OCPD
20%
Psychiatry
the branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorders
What brain structures are in the limbic system?
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Hippocampus
Pituitary
diathesis stress model
states that environmental stressors can provide the circumstances under which a biological predisposition for illness can express itself
behavioral model
aka cognitive behavior or social learning model; brought systematic to scientific
Possible treatment for OCPD
CT or Psychodynamic Tx
Schizophrenia and delusional disorders
Treatment-antipsychotics, fam therapy, education for patient on why meds are importantMost quit taking meds-think they don't need them or that they are poisoning them, ect.
Axon
the branch that sends messages and extends from neuron to neuron
Temperament -
Characteristic ways of behaving in relation to the environment that are usually seen as inborn traits.
Ego
Part of the psyche that channels libido acceptable to the superego and within the constraints of reality.
Sampling
process by which cases or subjects are drawn from a larger population; should be representative of entire population
Automatic Thoughts
Beck--> I am worthless, Everyone hates me, etc.
When a factor analysis produces a series of factors it is useful to determine how much of the variance is accounted for by each factor. An ___ is based on the factor loadings of all the variables in the factor analysis to a particular factor.
eigenvalue
111) The treatment model for substance abuse that encourages the patient to evaluate how their substance abuse interferes with their life goals and values is
motivation-enhancement therapy.
Kindling
Signals the beginnings of changes in neural pathways.
Somatization Disorder
-intense and chronic pain to multiple areas of the body without physical causes
-caused by psychological problems (depression, stress...)
-possible symptoms include - aches, pains, tiredness, problems walking, numbness, blackouts, nausea, menstrual problems, lack of pleasure from sex
what are phobic disorders?
-phobias are excessive irrational fears of specific objects or situations
-involve behavioral component: avoidance of the phobic stimulus (in addition to physical or cognitive fears)
-specific phobias are excessive fears of particular objects or situations such as mice, spiders, tight places, or heights
Permissive/indulgent
high on warmth but low on discipline and control. associated with aggressive and compulsive behavior in childhood
Schzoid PD characteristics
-doesnt desire or enjoy close relationships
-prefers solitude
-takes pleasure in few things
-is indifferent to praise and criticism
Identify the phobia:
Dennis fears and avoids storms. On his first oceangoing cruise, he found that deep water terrified him too.
Natural Environment Phobia
Twin studies on alcoholism
Both genetic & environmental compoment. Concordance rates higher for MZ twins
Hobbes
Built of Des Carteshave a bunch of innate ideas that we then associate together to form knowledgebehavior is guided by appetites and aversions
Benjamin Rush
responsible fro early spread of of moral treatment in the U.S.
internal validity
the degree to which manipulation of the independent variables can be causally related to changes in the dependent variables
Separation Anxiety Disorder:  
Separation Anxiety Disorder involves excessive anxiety related to separation from the home or from people to whom the individual is attached. The disorder often develops following a life stressor such as death of a relative or pet or a move to a new neighborhood.
stroke
-when a blood clot blocks the supply of blood in ana rtery serving the brain, leading to death of brain tissue that can result in loss of function controlled by that part of the brain
-coma or even death can occur
The catchall sub-type of schizophrenia for those that don't fit the other subtypes.
Chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia
limbic system
links the higher mental processes of the forebrain with the midbrain and hindbrain. It is made up of a variety of different brain stuctures that are central to the regulation of emotion and basic learning processes.
defense mechanisms
* anxiety results from blockage of id impulses or from frear of expression of an impulse * defense mechanisms reduce anxiety * repression: impulses are made unconscious * Denial: troubling experiences are made unconscious * Projection: person attributes their own impulses onto others
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
have difficulty paying attention or sitting still. This disorder occurs more commonly in boys
Manic Episode
(must have 3+) huge increase in self-esteem, flight of ideas, impulsive behavior, no real connection to impulses, risk-taking/thrill seeking
Type 1 Alcoholism+Genetics
*Less severe*Later in life*Genes can be moderated by environment*Men and women
Dysthymia
Axis 1-Always a little below normal in mood, blah attitude, always tired, no super low pts, suicidal moments, stressed, pessimisticDiagnosis-depressed most the day more days than not for at least 2 yrs2 of following symptoms needed: eating or sleep disturbance, low energy, low self-esteem, poor concentration, difficulty making decisions, feelings of hopelessnessSymptoms never break for more than 2 months, no major depressive episode, no mania or hypomania, never better or worse unless interventionTreatment: antidepressants, cognitive therapy
Schizophrenia: Disturbances in Thought Form (3)
1. Loose associations/tangentiality2. Creating new words3. Preservation
Comorbidity
The presense of two or more disorders in the same person.
Correlation Coefficient
numerical expression of the degree of correspondence between two variables; varies from -1 to 1
Neurophysiological Test
A test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance.
89) Eating much more rapidly than normal is a key feature of which disorder listed below
binge eating disorder.
Endorphin:
It is involved in pain reduction and pleasure, and the opioid drugs work by attaching to endorphin's receptor sites.
Both alcohol and barbiturate withdrawal
present potentially life threatening situations
Case Study
Good but info collected can only be applied to that one individual and not a population
Luisa is a lively and emotional graduate student. She dresses provocatively and behaves in a very seductive manner with her male professors. She has had a long string of short-lived, stormy romances. Luisa is most likely to have a diagnosis of
histrionic personality disorder.
What is amenorrhea?
Absence of at least 3 menstrual cycles
Behavioral Family Therapy
A treatment based on learning theory principles that teaches parents to be very clear and specific about their expectations for chilren's behavior, to montior children's actions closely, and to systematically reward + behavior while ignoring or punishing misbehavior
Methods for assessment
watching & recording what a person does in a particular setting, can be structures, in a clinical setting, or naturalistic, inter-rater reliability can be weakness in this technique
 
Symptoms of Unipolar Depression
 
Lack of meaning in life
Excess crying
Loss of appetite
Pessimism for future
Withdrawal
Loss of sense/pride in self
Lack of control in environment
Idiographic Understanding
An understanding of the behavior of a particular individual
Cognitive Distortions: Arbitrary/Superstitious Inferences
reaching conclusion in absence of real evidence, or predicting future without evidence
What is the difference between somatization disorder and conversion disorder?
Somatization disorder involves multiple and recurrent bodily symptoms, rather than one single complaint as in Conversion disorder.
Function of the limbic system
-receives perceptual info from cortex
-influences emotion, memory, and endocrine system
Orgasmic d/o
there IS desire and arousal but NO orgasm **orgasm
Genital Stage (Brief overview)
GenitalsFocus on SexDev. ability to form warm/caring relationships and to be worried about the other's welfareGreater impulse controlLONG LASTING
DSM-IV-TR 5 axes
1. All diagnostic categories except MR and PD2. Personality disorders and mental retardation3. General Medical Conditions 4. Psychosocial and environmental problems5. GAF (Global assessment of functioning scale)
Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Sensitive to Other's Opinions- Avoid Social Relationships- Low Self-Esteem- Take Few Risks- Followers Not Leaders- Socially Inhibited - will keep opinions to themselves- Fearful of rejection
Man's Search for Meaning
by Viktor Frankl; decribed his experiences as a concentration camp prisoner; argued that behavior is driven by the meanings, values, and purposes that characterize a person's life
Use of Wolpe's "reciprocal inhibition" involves:
a. pairing anxiety-inducing stimuli with relaxation
b. pairing an undesirable behavior with an aversive stimulus
c. replacing external attributions with internal attributions
d. narrowing the cues
a. pairing anxiety-inducing stimuli with relaxation -
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
an anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing a traumatic event that envolved the threat of injury or death
how might we understand the development of PTSD?
-learning theories provides a framework for understanding the conditioning of fear to trauma-related stimuli and the role of negative reinforcement in maintaining avoidance behavior
-other factors, however, come into play in determining vulnerability to PTSD, including the degree of exposure to the trauma and personal characteristics
*example: childhood of sexual abuse with a lack of social support system
Which is better for trating GAD?
Anti-dipresseants or Benzodiazepines?
Anti-depressants for the long term.
Benzodiazepines have bad effects such as impairing motor skills and huge dependencies. But are good prescribed for short-term
Prognosis of ADHD
greatly depends on whether CD or ODD are comorbid with ADHD. If so, youth are more likely to develop problems with substance abuse, criminality, and other forms of antisocial behavior
 
What are the chracteristics/symptoms of
Reactive Attachment Disorder?
 
Begins before age 5
Marked by a disturbance in the child's ability to
relate to other people
Inappropriate attachment for age:
(a) inhibited subtype: act same towards the caregivers as to strangers (distant)
      (b) disinhibited subtype: want more attachment with everyone, even strangers
Do Not differientiate between the two
Physical changes that occur in Anorexia
-Blood pressure drops-HR slows-Can cause damage to internal organs-Hair loss-Enlarged Ventricles-Problems with electrolytes
Example of social phobia classical conditioning
-early experiences of humiliation, embarrassment, or recurrent teasing cause this
Life Events and Mood D/O
Majority of ppl w/MDD recently suffered a stressful life event
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Cluster CLose pt of activity bc of detailsAbility to complete tasks compromised by perfectionismWorthless objects kept-hoardingFriends/leisure excluded bc of workInflexible on morality and ethicsReluctant to assign tasks(fear not rightMiserly towards self and othersStubborn4 neededalways been this wayAnti-anxiety meds, cog/behavioral therapy
Alcohol Withdrawal symptoms (7)
1. Sweating or increased heard rate2. Hand tremors3. Insomnia4. Nausea or vomiting5. Hallucinations6. Agitation (unable to sit still)7. Anxiety
Biological Challenge Test
A procedure used to produce panic in subjects or clients by having them exercise vigorously or perform other tasks in the presence of a researcher or therapist.
87) A compensatory behavior may be defined as
anything that expels caloric intake.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder ("free-floating anxiety")
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
What is fourth feature?
This disorder is not due to substance or medical condition.
Etiological theories of Paraphilia: Learning theory
Conditioning; have to be introduced to it, and they learn it through example
how is stress linked to physical illness?
weakened immune system functioning which can be caused by stress can increase vulnerability to physical illness
-evidence is correlational
Pinel and Jean Baptiste Pussin  
Freed the patients of prison-like asylum settings
Dependent PD 5+ of the following
1. Needs advice/reassurance on even small everyday decisions 2. Needs others to assume responsibility for major life areas3. Difficulty expressing disagreement 4. Difficulty initiating things, or working alone5. Excessive lengths to get nurturing/support from others6. Hates being alone7. Needs relationships CONSTANTLY8. Preoccupied w/fears of being left to care for themselves
Informed Consent: Research participants (2)
- Must be informed of the procedures in the study- Consent form -- Approved by the Research Ethics Board-- However, having a form signed is not a guarantee
Both _____ and ______ are alternative names for Broca's aphasia.
expressive aphasia and motor aphasia
Schizophrenia is believed to be associated with the neurotransmitters _________ & ________
-dopamine, which has been found to increase neural activity, thereby making the brain oversensitive
-glutamate, which allows neural communication to occur quickly and efficiently
Summarize contributions from the behavior genetics research regarding eating disorders.
There is a slowing of the metabolic rate, which is the rate at which the body expends energy, there is movement toward hyperlipogenesis, which is storage of abnormally large amounts of fat in fat cells throughout the body.
What is Panic Control Therapy and how successful is it compared to anti anxiety medication?
Panic control therapy involves cognitive restructuring, the development of an awareness of bodily cues associated with panic attacks, and breathing retraining.
It has been found that those treated with PCT show higher levels of improvement and a higher percentage remain symptom free in comparison to those treated with anti anxiety medication.
What does Sociocognitive Model of Dissociative Identity Disorder say about DID?
This model suggests that clients enact the roles that they feel are demanded by the situation. The model says that social attention to the condition of DID, along with unintentional prompting by therapists, can lead to the development of this disorder in vulnerable individuals.
Why is clinical depression a concern?
Can lead to severe and long-lasting psych pain that can get worse
Research on the effectiveness of aversive therapy, for addictive and other self-reinforcing behaviors suggest that it:
a. is less effective than pharmacological approaches
b. has substantial short-and long term effects
c. has good short-term but limited l
c. has good short-term but limited long-term effects if used alone
Judd has been drinking heavily for a number of years. When he is not drinking he experiences profuse sweating and shakes. This indicates that Judd
has withdrawal symptoms when he abstains from alcohol.
Why has it been difficult to empirically test both sides of the debate?
There isn't a high level of reliability
Prev. of schizophrenia: Age of onset Biased ethnicitiy
Late adolescents, early adulthoodBlacks
Your client is terminating your psycho service by mutual agreement after two years. She's going to be married the following May and would like you to be one of her wedding attendants. U should
decline, explaining that this would be a multiple relationship... if u become her friend, u will no longer b able to offer her services
Why does the DSM-IV-TR use a single set of diagnostic criteria for all types of drugs?
All forms of abuse represent an inherent conflict between immediate pleasure and longer term harmful consequences. The biochemical and psychological effects on the user are often similar, as are the negatvie consequences for both social and occupational behaviors
Freud's Theory of Depression 1. Stage 2. Results in: 3. Depression simply put is:
1. Oral Fixation2. Excessive dependency on others3. Anger turned inward
Which of the following is an example of the most common type of hallucination seen in schizophrenia?
Sondra tried to ignore the voices in her head.
During the tenth session of a therapy group, the group's cotherapists find themselves disagreeing about an issue raised by one of the group members. According to Yalom, the best course of action in this situation would be:
a. to have the senior therapist
d. for the therapists to discuss their disagreement in front of the group members
according to roger, healthy people are
* healthy people are aware of their own behavior innately good and effective purposive and directive
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