Abnormal 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Etiology
Cause
chronic
long lasting
 
 
Curing Phobias
 
Systematic Desentization
 
Imaginary Techniques
 
Flooding
 
 
Limbic System
-Hypothalamus-Amygdala-Anterior CingulateEmotion, attention to emotional stimuli, memories of emotion
OCPD prev rate
1 percent
Modeling
observing other person's behaviors
organic amnesia
organic induced amnesia
117) Negative symptoms of schizophrenia include all of the following except
delusions.
Synapse
tiny filled space between neurons
ASPD gene relation in families
yes
Aphasia
Loss or impairment in language
Specific Phobia:
The Blood-Injection-Injury Type differs from the other types of Specific Phobia in terms of the person's physiological reaction to feared stimuli. In the Blood-Injection-Injury Type, the feared stimulus produces a fainting response that involves a brief increase in heart rate and blood pressure followed by a decrease in both. In contrast, other Specific Phobias are associated with an increase in heart rate and blood pressure only. Because of this difference, relaxation techniques are not used for the Blood-Injection-Injury Type since they would exacerbate the fainting tendency. Instead, the individual is encouraged to tense his or her muscles (rather than relax them) in the presence of a feared stimulus.
Paranoid PD
-Pervasive distrust and suspisciousness of other
-Suspicious of being deceived, harmed or exploited.
- Doubts loyalty or trustworthiness of others.
-Reluctant to confide in others.
-Reads hidden meaning into benign remarks or events.
-Bears grudges and does not forgive perceived insults, slights, or injuries
-Recurrently suspiscious of fidelity of spouse/partner
-Not attributable to Schizophrenia
 
Examples of antidepressants
-Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor
-Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
-Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Gender and Depression
F 2x M
Diagnosis
classification of disorders by symptoms and signs
Hypothalamus
controls basic biological urges (eating, drinking, and sexual activity)
Dysfunction
Interferes with daily functioning (i.e. loss of jo
Learned Helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Some people with anorexia nervosa binge eat.
True
homicide of famility member or friend
13
The diagnosis of personality disorders is extremely reliable and valid.
False
antipsychotic medication
treat positive symptoms; target dopamine receptors; older version of medicine
AIDS
Fastest to cause dementiaCNS greatly affected
phenotype
an individuals actual or expressed traits
Gene
Chromosome segments that ontrol the characteristics and traits we inherit
organized part of the personality structure, mainly but not entirely unconscious, that includes the individual's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the psychic agency (commonly called 'conscience') that criticizes and prohibits his or her drives, fantasies,
superego
Developed client-centered therapy, a therapy that was based upon the concept of unconditional positive regard.
Rogers, C.
MAO INHIBITORS
AN ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUG UNDER BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT THAT SLOW THE PRODUCTION OF MAO
panic disorder
acute episodes of intense anxiety
Pain
-disorder can vary from primarily psychogenic to primarily physical
Withdrawal from synthetic opiates leads to
Delirium, convulsions
Id, Ego, Superego
Id-unconscious desires (hunger, thirst, sex)
 
Ego-morals, doing what you are supposed to do

Superego-conscious decision making, planning
Phallic Stage
Psychosexual stage that occurs between the ages of 3 and 6 years of age; focus of pleasure is the genitals, important conflicts of sexual development emerge at this time, differing for boys and girls.
AXIS II
Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation; any long-term disorder not covered in Axis I
34) About what percentage of all persons receiving a primary diagnosis have symptoms that meet criteria for a second diagnosis?
50%
Norepinephrine:
Strongly associated with bringing our nervous systems into "high alert."

- Important for forming memories
Depersonalization Disorder
-less than 1% adolescence
-subjective experience of unreality
-"out of body" experiences
Anxiety is associated with specific______(for example, BIS or FFS) and _________ systems(for example, non adrenergic).
Brain circuits, neurotransmitter
Linkage Analysis
studies of mental disorders capitalize on several current known locations on chromosomes of genes for other inherited physical characteristics or biological processes.
Gene concondences are higher in men t/f
ture
psychopathology
The symptoms and signs of mental disorders, including such phenomena as depressed mood, panic attacks, and bizarre beliefs.
abreaction
emotional reliving of a past traumatic event
Hall
First psychology lab in america at hopkinsfounded american journal of psychologyfounded american psychology association and was elected president
 
 
 
causes of disorders in cognitive, motor and communication skills (5)
genetic factors
 
lead poisoning
 
birth defects
 
sensory dysfunction
 
impoverished environments
 
 
Characteristics of Somatoform Disorders
 
Loss/Alteration of Physical Functioning
 
Symptoms are not under person's control
 
**Person is not really concerned

Symptoms communicate rather than person
 
1/2 cases disappear after 2 years
 
Abnormal Psychology
The scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
Associative Splitting
A difficulty keeping a consistent train of thought characteristic of all people with this disorder led to the many and diverse symtoms they displayed.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
-Marsha Linehan
-CBT for BPD
-Dec unstable, suicidal behavior
-Increases skills to regulate emotions, interpersonal skills and distress tolerance
 
Social Work
concerned with helping people to achieve an effective level of psychosocial functioning
13 Symptoms of Panic Attacks
- heart palpitations
-trembling/shaking
-choking
-dizzy, lightheaded, faint
-paresthesias
-derealization/depersonalization
-fear of losing control/going crazy
-sweating
-shortness of breath
-chest pain
-nausea, abdominal distress
-chills/ hot flushes
-fear of dying
double binds
-when a person gives contradictory messages 
-possible cause of schiz.
behaviorism
2nd approach by Skinner, Pavlov, and Watson; focus on how learning and adaptation affect development of psychopathology
Odd Personality D/O description
*Suspiciousness, Social withdrawal, Peculiar ways of thinking or perceiving *Leave the person isolated*May be related to schizophrenia
Delusional disorder
set of twisted beliefs, filters reality through those twisted beliefs, cults are community's with this disorder
Posttraumatic Stress D/O
(definition)
enduring, distressing emotional d/o that follows exposure to a severe helplessness or fear inducing threat. 
 
the victim reexperiences the trauma, avoids stimuli associated w/, and develops a numbing of responsiveness and an increased vigilance and arousal.
Personality Disorders -
Inflexible and maladaptive patterns of personality that usually stabilize over time and result in functional impairment and distress to the individual.
Unconscious
Area of the psyche where memories, wishes, and needs are stored, and where conflicts among the id, ego, and superego are played out.
Reactivity
refers to changes in behavior that occur when subjects know they are being observed or studied; can lead to drawing false conclusions from experimental results
Overgeneralization
Drawing a general conclusion on the basis of a single, sometimes insignificant, event
When factor loadings are high, the eigenvalue will be:
large
76) Factitious disorders differ from somatoform and dissociative disorders in the that former
produces intentional symptoms.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
-16-17 years, 1-2%
-specific area or feature is grotesque
-Not reality
how is PTSD treated?
-major treatment approach is cognitive-behavioral therapy that focuses on repeated exposure to cues associated with the trauma and may be combined with cognitive restructuring and training in stress management and anger management techniques
Ego
mediates between the demands of the id and the realities of the external world
Avoidant PD definition
A pervaisve pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensivity to negative evaluation
Panic Attack
Abrupt experience of intesne fear or discomfort with several physical symptoms like dizziness and heart palpitations.
polysubstance abuse
people with a substance abuse use disorder frequently abuse several types of drugs
Hebart
Concepts that do not conflict can sit together in the brain, but concepts that conflict can not. The weaker concept will be pushed out by the stronger one.
European views
Demonology - the study of the influence of demons, mentally i; were persecuted an killed
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables expressed along a continuum that varies between -1.00 and 1.00
Personality judgement
judgements are usually made on a person undesireble behaviors
Immune system
the body's system of defense against disease
Lying about symptoms with no evident goal
Factitious disorder
endocrine system
a collection of glands found at various locations throughout the body; produce psychophysiological responses by releasing hormones into the bloodstream.
LERNED HELPLESSNES
ACCORDING TO SELIGMAS , WHEN PEOPLE BELIEVE THEY HAVE LOST  CONTROL ON PAST EXPERIENCES AND HAS NO CONTROL OVER ONE'S REINFORCEMENT
negative symptoms
deficits in behavior, thought or mood like flat affect and catatonia
Anorexia nervosa
-refusal to maintain 85% body weight b/c intense fear of obesity and pursuit of thinness-never satisfied - distorted body image-onset age 13-treatment resistant-amnorrhea, cold intolerance, low bp-comorbid w/ depression & anxiety (OCD)-highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder-Tx: Psychotherapy and family therapy used, but not very successful
Starvation study
Men given half of their req. caloriesAs a result: Preoccupied w/food, MDE, Anxiety, Insomnia, Poor conc. , Irritable, Hoard food
Disorders comorbid with Anxiety Disorders
Substance abuse, personality disorders, medical disorders, 3/4 of those w/ anxiety disorders meet criteria for another disorder (60% major depression)
Schizophrenia: Disorganized Subtype sections (4)
1. Disorganized Speech2. Disorganized Behavior3. Flat or Inappropriate Affect 4. Hallucinations and Delusions
prevelance
the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time.
Systematic Desentization
a therapeutic procedure whose goal is to extinguish a conditioned response
Standardization
QThe process in which a test is administered to a large group of people whose performance than serves as a common standard or norm against which any individual's score can be measured.
59) Passive suicidal ideation and active suicidal ideation may be discriminated from each other on the basis of
plans, means, and intent.
Acetylcholine:
It is responsible for much of the stimulation of muscles, including the muscles of the gastro-intestinal system.
Opium and heroin
were originally used by physicians as pain relievers.
Authoritarian parenting
high on control but low on warmth. they often appear quiet cold and demanding. their children tend to be conflicted, moody, and irritable.
Dialectical behavior therapy is
a promising, problem focused treatment for borderline personality disorder.
Effectiveness of CBT
70-80% reduction in binge eating and purging
Depression in children & adolescents
often comorbid with externalizing disorders and with anxiety
Placebo control group
an experimental control group in which participants are exposed to a fake independent variable
 
 
 
 
Dusky vs. US
set precedent for competency to stand trial
 
*must understand process
*must be able to function in process
Dream
A series of ideas and images that form during sleep
Cognitive Distortions: Mental Filter
tendency to focus exclusively on single detail while ignoring more accurate, bigger picture
What is hypochondria?
A somatoform disorder in which a client believes or fears that they have a serious illness when they are only expriencing normal bodily reactions.
Exposure and response prevention
- Behavior therapy treatment for OCD
- Repeated exposure to anxiety-provoking obsessions, followed by prevention of compulsive behavior.
 
rape and sadism
few rapist show arousal to violent material and forced violence
Each of Freud's psychosexual stages is characterized by:This influences:
A crisisAdult personality
Eccentric Personality Disorders
Characterized by signs of distrust in people
Cluster C: Personality Disorders (3)
"Anxious or Fearful"- Avoidant- Dependent- Obsessive-Compulsive
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
every response of a particular type is reinforced
Alzheimer's Dementia often results in problemss in the executive functions such as
a. aphasia and agnosia
b. apraxia and disorientation
c. planning and organizaing
d. recalling and recognizing
c. planning and organizing
Manic Episode
a mood disorder maked by a hyperactive wildly optimistic state
self-defeating thoughts
-thoughts like "i HAVE to get out of here" intensify autonomic arousal, disrupt planning, magnify the aversiveness of stimuli, prompt avoidance behavior and decrease self-efficacy expectancies concerning ones ability to control the situation
ex-ppl with social phobia think "i'll sound stupid" which will make them refrain from speaking infront of others
What is fifth feature?
The disorder can be diagnosed in someone with a pervasive developmental disorder only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present.
Reactive attachment disorder or anaclitic depression
lack of social responsiveness found among infants who dont have a consistent attachment figure, parental neglect
Which of the following reactions to poor test performance suggests a cognitive diathesis for depression?
I'll never understand this.
Concepts in preventing suicide
-Ethically, you are bound to attempt to stop them-Reduce psychological pain-Help them see options-Cannot be nondirective, you have to intervene and take some control over the person's life.
Gender difference of lifetime prevalence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
64% gender difference of lifetime prevalence
Problem w/the DSM and PD
Very categorical approach to a spectrum d/oPersonality traits form a continuum
Internal Consistency Reliability
Extent to which test items are related to one another
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder: Treatment
- Tries to address fears- Relaxation techniques
Acute Stress Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than one month.
35) Developmental factors should be reflected in diagnostic systems because
of the theory of developmental trajectory.
If schizophrenia were exclusively a genetic disorder,
the concordance rate for dizygotic twins would be 100%.
 
 
What are symptoms of Social Phobias?
-intense, persistent, and chronic fear of being watched and judged by others
-fear of doing things that will embarrass them.
-interfers with ordinary everyday activities
Treatment of Bulimia: Promising Treatments, Dialectical Behavioral therapy
When the client trusts the therapist and is motivated to change, they can start making progress
3 phases of schizophrenia:
1. Prodromal phase - Before episode: Decreased interest in social activities, poor hygiene, work and school decline, behavior may seem odd, speech may be vague and rambling
2. Acute/active phase - equivalent to the DSM symptoms: Hallucinations, delusions
3. Residual phase - (after) Behavior returns to level that was characteristic of the prodromal phase: May be apathetic, difficulties in thinking/speaking, "odd" ideas, poor social skills.
Social anxiety disorder is another name for:
Social Phobia is another name for:
Key focus for treatment of Dependent PD
Accept responsibility for themselves Can do family or couple therapy
Canadian Psychological Association Ethics Code (4)
1. Respect for the dignity of persons 2. Responsible caring3. Integrity in relationships4. Responsibility to society
An object relations family therapist such as Framo would be most interested in which of the following during the third phase of therapy?
a. addressing the marriage's quid pro quo
b. working through the multiple transferences
b. working through the multiple transferences
Which of the following best describes the person with undifferentiated schizophrenia?
Jake, who shows bizarre behavior, delusions, and disordered speech but has normal emotions.
Characteristics of binges? How does a person feel after a binge? Types of foods consumed?
They soon feel uncomfortable after eating. Initially it is comforting & alleviates some of person's unhappy feelings, but physical discomfort and fear of gainign weight soon override the positive aspects.
What is the difference between dysphoria and euphoria?
Dysphoria is a feeling of sadness while euphoria is a feeling of elation.
What are the diagnostic features of Depersonalization Disorder?
Persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling detached from mental processes or body, as if in a dream or as if the client is an external observer
During the depersonalization experience, the client is in touch with reality.
The symptoms cause significant distress or impairment.
The disturbance does not occur as a result of another mental disorder, the use of substances, or a medical or neurological condition.
Perfectionism and EDO -including Aversive self-awareness
Be perfect or extremely self-critical -Increased awareness of your own perceived "flaws"-->Distress-->Bingeing/Purging/Restricting
What effect do neurotransmitters have on postsynaptic cells?
a. an excitatory effect
b. an inhibitory effect
c. either an excitatory or inhibitory effect
c. either an excitatory or inhibitory effect
At low levels, alcohol's effect on the brain is ________; at higher levels, alcohol's effect is ________.
to activate the brain's "pleasure centers;" depress brain functioning
"Rule violations" for externalizing disorders
It is much mroe serious when it is freq, intense, lasting, and pervasive. It is more problematic when it is part of a syndrome, or cluster of problems, than when it is a symptom that occurs in isolation.
Viral Damage to fetal brain and Schizophrenia
Moms w/the flu are highly correlated to Schizophrenia rates esp. during 2 trimester
A Caucasian in the reintegration stage of white identity development:
a. finds socially acceptable ways to expresss antipathy toward minorities
b. views race as less imp than other qualities
c. begins to reject her racist views
d. views whites as superior
d. views whites as superior and minorities as inferior - six identity statuses: contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion-emersion, and autonomy
What are some medications that are sometimes used during remission and how do they work? What are some issues with medication treatments?
Disulfiram is a drug that can block chemical breakdown of alochol. But if it is taken while alcohol has been consumed it can make the person violently ill
Does having 2 types of AN provide any use?
Doesn't really tell us anything helpful
There is a new trend to focus on dopamine receptor sensitivity rather than on dopamine itself because
there is no strong evidence that people with schizophrenia have too much dopamine.
In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, it was found that people:
a. compete from the beginning
b. cooperate initially but then compete
c. compete initially but later cooperate
d. cooperate from the beginning
a. compete from the beginning - People are presented with a situation where if they cooperate, they each will receive moderate reward. If they compete, one will receive a big reward adn the other will receive nothing. What happens is that people tend to compete straight away. They take a risk. Outside of our family and reference group we tend to be suspicious and hostile
four major parts of a nerve
1. the cell body 2. several dendrites, the short and think extensions 3. one or more axons of varying lengths, but usually only on long and thin axon that extends a considerable distance from the cell body 4. terminal buttons on the many end branches of the axon
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