Abnormal Child Psychology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
DSM-IV:OCD- Obsessions

recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are intrusive and cause marked anxiety or distress 
thoughts, impulses, images are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems 
person attempts to ignore such thoughts, impulses, images or to neutralize them with some other thought or action 
person recognizes that the obsessional thoughts, impulses, or images are a product of his/her own mind
behavioral differences indications
frequencyintensitydurationsituation - is it right for the sit.abrupt changes (walks before crawls, alphabet before language skills)
_______ behaviors include rule violations such as running away, stealing, setting fires, using alcohol and drugs, and commiting acts of vandalism
Tripartite Model
Physiological hyperarousal -> Anxiety <- negative affect -> Depression <- (low) positive affect
FDA Review

No completed suicides occurred among nearly 2,200 children treated with SSRI medications

About 4 percent of those taking SSRI medications experienced suicidal thinking or behavior, including actual suicide attempts
The RIsk: Too depressed to actually go out and perform the act of suicide, so when you begin to take the medication, it makes you feel good enough to go out and do so
Panic disorder

characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks 
persistent concerns about the implications and consequences of having another attack 
a sudden and overwhelming period of intense fear or discomfort that is accompanied by physical and cognitive symptoms
Childhood Onset of CD:
*Preschool age*Interpersonal aggression*Decreased Verbal IQ (Low achievement)*Low Prevalence (Boys>Girls)*Comorbid w/ADHD*Poor Prognosis
extrafamilial risk factors.
neighborhood, community violence, gender, race, death, war, disaster.
Common complaints about the ________ child are that the child doesnt or wont listen, follow instructions, or finish chores or assignments.
Age inappropriate actions and attitudes of a child that violate family expectations, societal norms, and the peresonal or property rights of others.
Conduct Problems
Children with conduct problems have _______ intelligence.
generalized anxiety disorder
excessive and uncontrollable anxiety and worry about the number of events/activities more days than not- can be different worries, but you spend most of your day worrying- has to happen for at lease 6 months
MDD: Comorbidity

70% of children and adolescence with MDD have another disorder
disorders usually precede depression and persist after depression remits
anxiety, dysthymia, conduct problems, ADHD, and substance abuse
Depression Causes: Neurobiological Factors

Overall Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)- overactive in anxious individuals
HPA system, limbic system, prefrontal cortex, brain stem

cognitive symptoms of anxiety
subjective feelings of apprehension, nervousness, difficulty concentrating and panic
search for potential sources of threat
difficulty focusing on everyday tasks because of this
see table 7.1 p. 193
Primary Encopresis
*Child has never established control of feces
protective factors
variables that increase the child's ability to avoid negative outcomes despite being at risk for psychopathology.
clinical psychology
study of symptoms, causes and treatment of behavior disorders
A pattern of behavorial, cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms shown by an individual
Psychological Disorder
True or False. Individual children may be resilient to some specific stressors but not to others.
Describes children who display a repetitive and persistent pattern of severe aggressive and antisocial acts that involve inflicting pain on otherse or interfering with rights of others through physical and verbal aggression, stealing, or commiting acts of
Conduct Disorder
Treatments for separation anxiety disorder

behavioral plan
for kids that refuse to go to school= MAKE THEM GO!!
coping cat
Acute stress disorder

characterized by the development of dissociative symptoms
must occur within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor
lasts at least 2 days but not longer than 1 month
Secondary Encopresis
*Child was once in control of feces*VERY Concerning
Genetic etiology of ADHD
*Non-Specific *Familial component w/Dx of ADHD, Substance Abuse, MDD, Anxiety
behavioral differences1.
behaviors that are not present in typical behavior ( hallucinations, severe behavior)
Transactional Model
views development as the result of continuous interplay of individual and environmental factors which interact and influence each other. its a bidirectional relationship
The 5% of children with severe and chronic ASB account for over _____ of the crime in the United States.
The amount of information we can remember and attend to for a short time.
Attentional Capacity
A variable tht increases one's ability to avoid negative outcomes, despite being at risk for psychopathology.
Resilience Factor
Children with Conduct problems are most likely to experience underachievement in ______ and _____.
Language and Reading
social anxiety disorder

marked and persistent fear of being the focus of attention or doing something humiliating
anxious about mundane tasks (i.e. public speaking or tripping when entering a room)
more likely to be highly emotional, socially fearful or inhibited, sad and lonely
generalized social phobia: most severe form: fear of every social situation possible
Bipolar Disorder: Treatment

Like Diabetes- once its there it doesn’t go away, but you can manage it and learn to live with it



social rhythms
characteristics of separation anxiety disorder

most common childhood disorder (10%)
somewhat more prevalent in girls than boys
onset may be chronic or sudden
school refusal, refusal to attend class or, difficulty remaining in school for the entire day
2/3 meet criteria for other disorders, 1/2of them will develop depression
includes test anxiety
Childhood rating scales for ADHD.
*Conners, CBCL*Informant data: Parent, teachers*Self-report*Cross-situational reports
General description of CD
Persistent pattern of behaviors that violate basic rights of others and/or major age appropriate norms
developmental pathways
look more at sequence and toming of behaviors both normal and abnormal and the relationship between behaviors over time.
Children with this disorder display an age-inappropriate recurrent pattern of stubborn, hostile, and defiant behaviors.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
What is found on Axis IV
Psychosocial and environmental problems
Mood Disorder Causes: Stressful life events

Increases in stress associated with increases in depression
birth of a sibling
death of a loved one
changing schools
parent conflict or divorce
family violence
lack of family resources
serious accident or family illness

see triggers in book
Bipolar I disorder

One or more manic or mixed episodes and one or more major depressive episodes
Mixed episode= criteria met for manic and major depressive episode
Hard for children to have
More severe and lasts longer
CBT for MDD and DD

provides the most long- and shirt-term success in children and adults

also want to change negative attributions
internal- blame themselves
stable- think that it will never change
global- applies to all they do and in most situations

focus on changing the negative cognitive triad
self- there is nothing good about me
world- it’s not worth it
future- i’ll never be able to graduate
Why do we care about enuresis?
*1st sign of greater psychopathology
failure to progress
it may indicate a problem and the child becomes stuck
Characterized by traits such as lacking guilt, not showing empathy, not showing emotions, and related traits of narcissism and impulsivity.
Callous and unemotional interpersonal style
What is found on Axis II
Personality disorders and mental retardation
treatment for anxiety- in-vivo exposure
exposing themselves to the fear and staying there until the anxiety is down
Meds affect of family interactions in ADHD
Controlling, directing, and neg. parental behaviors decrease when a child is on stimulant medsParent responsiveness and the use of rewards increases when kid is on meds, too
Family Pattern and Enuresis
*3/4 of all children w/enuresis have a 1 degree bio. relative w/the d/o*Evidence w/twin studies
Depression Causes: Genetic and family risk

studies show there is a biological vulnerability to anxiety disorders
twins studies show that they can have different anxieties, so what is inherited is the disposition to become anxious
for of the disorder is a function of the environment
highest genetic influence is ODC and the trait of shyness/inhibition
DSM-IV criteria for Social Phobia
Marked fear of one or more social/ performance situations where person if exposed to unfamiliar people or possible scrutiny by others- person fears that s/he will act in a way (or show anxious symptoms) that will be embarrassing or humiliating 

exposure to the feared social situation provokes 
may take form of a situationally-bound or predisposed panic attack

person realizes fear is unreasonable and excessive (nay be absent in children)
feared social or performance situation are avoided or endured with extreme anxiety
more criteria in book
person recognizes fear is excessive and unreasonable
Study examining DRD 1 and DRD 4
N=105 ADHDN=103 NMLs8-16 yrsThe groups were matched on IQ, SESfMRI
Why do some kids outgrow ADHD?
*Late to catch up*Possibly related to DRD 1, and DRD 4 genes*These polymorphisms assoc. w/DA and NE*DA transporter also plays are role
4 other DSM criteria for ODD
1. Occurs more frequently than norms2. Affects function in school, home, community3. Not co-current w/Mood/Psychotic d/o4. CD trumps ODD
Bipolar Disorder: Onset, Course and Outcome

Peak age of onset is between ages of 15-19 years
extremely rare prior to 10

depressive episode usually occurs first

chronic in nature and resistant to treatment
the earlier the onset, the more chronic and resistant it becomes

poor long-term prognosis 
read in book
How would you go about Dx ADHD for adults? 4 Ways
1. Aptitude-Attn/Conc. (via the WAIS)2. Emotional functioning (MMPI, BDI)3. Interviews of family, teachers4. Examine past records, report cards
Antisocial Behaviors and: *School Age *Preadolescence
*Fighting, lying, petty theft *Assault, Sexual Precocity
Why is ADHD linked to negative family interactions?
Sxs of ADHD are directly opposed to the parental goals of the parents
CD Prevalence: *Gender differences -Why
boys 4x girl -Boys: Direct physical aggression -Girls: Indirect aggression (mental) *Group affiliation
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