Abnormal Psychology 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
abstinence violation
alcohol induced dementia
Sensitive/Nervous vs. Secure/Confident
- A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability
short in duration
PDs are...
inflexible and pervasive
6+ months, urges/fantasies touching/rubbing against non-consenting person; not coercive nature of act sexually exciting - more touching
Physio/Psycho effects of discontinuation of a substance e.g. Restless, anxious, cramps, death
neurotransmitter; low levels are associated with depression
Most Common in Forensic Setting
the consistency of measurements, including diagnostic decisions
treatments for enuresis
Antidepressants, synthetic anti-diuretic hormone
bell and pad
Began with prefrontal lobotomies thought to relieve madness. (1950s). In the Western world, antipsychotics (neuroleptics) are the first treatment.
emotional suffering (e.g., anxiety disorder)
medical and psychological phenomena used to classify
UnconsciousForcing something out the consciousness Restrains Id impulses, painful memories/info/behaviorsCan be partially done
"The Flasher"- Recurrent, marked preference for obtaining sexual gratification by exposing one's genitals to an unwilling stranger
73) The major distinction between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue is that with dissociative fugue only
schizophrenia positive symptoms
hallucinations, disorganized though and speech, delusions
Many people with schizophrenia have enlarged brains, with brain size increasing over time.
Disorganized Syptoms
-bizzare behaviors and thought distrubances
Histronic PD requires DSM
5 of 8
Somatization Disorder
Extreme long-lasting focus on multiple physical symptoms for which no medial cause is evident 
Process of shaping children's behavior and attitudes to conform to the expectations of parents, teachers, and society as a whole
Cognition - Behavioral Model - Integrated model, emphasizes the learning process & the influences of the environment, treatments aimed at modifying client's perceptions while employing behavioral procedures
3 Disruptive Disorders
Conduct Disorder
Operational Defiance Disorder
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
Cluster C: Anxious-Fearful
-Anxiety and fearfulness
-Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive PD (NOT OCD)
a crude form of brain surgery
-enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, which results in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic action
long DNA molecules on different locations of chromosomes within cell nucleolus
Brief Psychotic d/o
Same sxs as Schizophrenia
Possible Neurotransmitter mechanisms
-Excessive or inadequate levels-Insufficient reuptake-Excessive sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors
Intercourse associated with pain- Rule of medical causes of pain
Risk Factor
a specific characteristic or condition whose presence is associated with an increased likelihood that a specific disorder is present or will develop at a later time
According to research on sex-role determinants, the characteristic that is most related to genetics as opposed to socialization is:
a. sociability
b. dependency
c. aggression
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delisional thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions
Bipolar I Disorder
majority of episodes are manic
Negative symptoms
are characterized an absence or deficit of normal behaviors.
imaginal exposure
-imagining oneself in the fearful place
Age of onset for men with schizophrenia
The histrionic seeks ________, while the narcissist needs ________.
attention; admiration
culture-bound syndromes
patterns of erratic or unusual thinking and behavior that have been identified in diverse societies around the world and do not fit easily into the other diagnostic categories that are listed in the main body of DSM-IV
Secondary gain
avoiding work or responsibility to gain attention and sympathy
Tourette's disorder
Repeated motor and verbal tics, interfere substantially with life functioning
a prehistoric method that was thought to release demons where a hole is cut in a person's skull
What are the characteristics/symptoms of ADHD?
difficulty organizing, completing work
genetics and social components
Exposure Treatments
Behavioral treatment in which persons are exposed to the objects or situations they dread
Traditional ways of sub-typing schizophrenia
-Disorganized schizophrenia-Catatonic schizophrenia-Paranoid schizophrenia-Chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia
the scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
-Mood stabilizer
-Used with severe cases having vegetative and melancholic sxs, who do not respond to medication
sexual masochism
-aroused by suffering pain or humiliation
psychodynamic psychotherapy
loose approach with several tactics that focus on social and interpersonal factors
Thinking in a cold, analytical way about stressful thingsDisassoc. of T from FIntellectual part=Conscious Emotional part=Unconscious Happens outside of awareness
Characteristics of Mental Disorders
Personal Distress, Disability, Violation of Social Norms, Dysfunction
Bipolar disorders include:
major depressive episodes, manic episodes, hypomanic episodes
A condition in which people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves and imitated thier behavior.
Biological Perspective
emphasizes the role of bodily processes
Saint Augustine's Confessions
revealed his innermost thoughts, temptations, and fears. demonstrated that introspection and exploration of the individual's emotional life could be valuable sources of psychological knowledge
a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test the theory
37) The dimensional model of classification is qualitative, implying what about how disorders are classified
on a continuum.
Medical Model
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed treated and in most cases cured when applied to psychological disorders the model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
1. Recurrent obsessions or compulsions
2. Past or present recognition that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable
3. Significant distress or impairment, or disruption by symptoms for more than one hour a day.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts and feelings
eating disorder in which people compulsively overeat either continuously or on discrete binges but do not behave in ways to compensate for the overeating
traumatic event
an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injurry to self or others and creases instense feelings of fear, helplessnes or roor
Older Antipsychotic Medications for Schizoprhenia
-target dopamine receptorms (Thorazine)
-work well with positive symptoms (75% of patients)
-side effects
concurrent validity
concerned with present time and with correlations between the disorder and other symptoms, circumstances, and test procedures
body dysmorphic disorder
preoccupied with some imagined defect in appearance; typically a facial preoccupation that may lead to repeated visits to a plastic surgeon; cause significant distress and interfere with work or relationships
Psychoanalytic theory of Exhibitionism
Unresolved Oedipal conflict (suspicion that father may have castrated him, reaction of women give him assurance they are still there)
Biological Theories of ADHD

Deficits in functioning in frontal lobes and caudate nucleus(also implicated in schizophrenia, who have similar difficulties with attention and planning): regulate planning, attention, and impulses

Immaturity hypothesis: lack of correlation between symptoms and actual brain injury


right to treatment
for people who have been committed
Wyatt vs. Stickney ('72)
even in prison, some people are treated
Cognitive Therapy
Aaron Beck, helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking
Disorganized (Hebephrenic) Type
Disruptions in speech and behavior with flat or inappropriate affect. (laughing at the wrong times) Fragmented hallucinations and delusions. Develops early and is chronic without remissions.
When you have Schizophrenic symptoms that occur after a trauma or bereavement, but it only lasts for a week or month or so
Brief Psychotic Episode
Treatment of PTSD symptoms
-60% recovered with treatment
-26% without treatment
-approaches to treatment include:  debriefing sessions (actually harmful), telephone hotlines, direct exposure therapy-ed. slowly build up to deal with triggers (trauma cues)
1. imaginative exposure (visualize it)
2. in vivo exposure (get out & deal)
meds-antidepressants with antianxiety, virtual reality (promising)
Most common anxiety disorder among elderly
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
anxiety disorders
type of disorders that consist of abnormal reactions to stress
Tx for Nicotine Dependence
Change social networkRapid smoking treatment: puffing fast, focused smokingScheduled reduction in tobacco usePhysician adviceNicotine replacements: Esp. when used w/antidepressants
the branches of the nueron that reach out and communicate
cognitive behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
Endocrine System
Systems of glands that produces many different hormones.
Rational-emotive therapy (RET)
enotional disorders are caused by irrational beliefs; impossiility of such must be pointed out (ELlis)
A family therapist notices that, whenever the mother talks, the father and son contradict what she says and criticize her. The father and son's bx is best described as
a. triangulation
b. a coalition
c. positive feedback
d. scapegoating
b. a coalition
Panic Disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensations
Is schizophrenia genetically influenced?
(1/100 society, 1/10 if family member has a diagnosis, 1/2 if identical twin has a diagnosis)
what are anxiety disorders?
anxiety, a generalized sense of apprehension or fear, is normal and desirable under some conditions, but it can become abnormal when it is excessive or inappropriate
-disturbed patterns of behavior in which anxiety is the most prominent feature are labeled anxiety disorders
Anorexia has a prev rate of ____ in females
Statistics of PTSD
Strange, many huge events such as bombings and all don't tend to develop any more likely.
However, combat: and sexual assault are common contributants
Assumptions: Air raids, bombings: Did not directly experience the horrors
Adoption studies on alcoholism
results point toward influence of genetics as well. Children with alcoholic parents, but adopted by nonalcoholics are more likely than the general population to develop alcoholism. If just adoptive parents are alcoholics, there isn't as big of an effect
Internalizing disorders
Information they take in and how it affects his/her self.OVERCONTROLLEDSeparation Anxiety, Phobias, Depression
developmental coordination disorder
deficits in ability to walk, run, hold onto objects
6% children between 5 and 11 years
A grief reaction is a type of major depressive disorder.
social support system
having a strong social support system can act as a buffer to stress, helps protect the body's immune system
Examples of Anxiety Disorders
Phobias, Panic Disorder, GAD, OCD, PTSD
The Big Five Traits of Personality
current dominant trait theory
PROS: intuitive, descriptive
CONS: de-emphasizes situation, fundamental attribution error
Common familial influences for AN
- Rigidity, parental overprotection, excessive control, martital discord btw parents
- Emphasis on: desirability of thinness, dieting, and physical appearance
Schizotypal PD 5+
1. Ideas of reference 2. Magical thinking that is inconsistent w/cultural norms 3. Unusual perceptual experiences 4. Odd thinking and speech5. Suspiciousness 6. Inappropriate/Constricted affect7. Lack of close friends8. Excessive social anxiety that doesn't go away
unipolar depression
a category of mood disorders on Axis I, DSM-IV-TR that includes major depression and dysthymia
Syndrome -
A pattern or group of symptoms and signs appearing together in a persistent fashion that may constitute evidence of a mental disorder.
In Vivo Systematic Desensitvation
Gradual exposure to feared stimulus while maintaining a relaxed state
53) In order to meet criteria for a major depressive episode, a patient would have to report experiencing depressed mood or lack of interest in daily activities for a period of
two weeks.
Parasympathetic nervous system:
Helps return our heartbeat and other body processes to normal
Cloninger adoption study
-Type 1 later onset with absence of criminal behavior
Type 2 early onset with presence of criminal behavior
Binge eating
Eating an amount of food in a fixed period of time. For example, less than 2 hours and a clearly larger meal than most people would consume under normal circumstances.
Stages of Psychosexual development
Oral (birth to 1) - sucking, chewingAnal (1-3) - toilet training Phallic (3-6) genitalsLatency (6-11) social valuesGenital (adolecent period) - puberty
Brief Psychotic Disorder
One or more pos Sx of Schizophrenia but tends to remit on its own. Usually precipitated by extreme stress or trauma.
How many types of anxiety disorders do the DSM recognize and age of onset?
specific phobia-7
panic disorder-24
agoraphobia w/o panic-20
any anxiety disorder-11
*1/3 all people have any anxiety disorder 
dependent personality disorder
disorder where people rely too much on the attention and help of others
Communication Deviance and SchizophreniaExpressed Emotion
Family CD may predict onsetHigh EE families=Quicker rehospitalization
False Negative -
A test result that is read as negative when it is really positive.
Frame of reference training is useful for:
a. increasing organizational commitment
b. management development
c. increasing job productivity
d. improving rater accuracy
d. improving rater accuracy
What is a somatoform disorder?
when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physical symptom
The mind-set of people with bulimia and people with anorexia
is very differenthorizontalpeople with anorexia don't seem bothered by other people's opinion (usually distress) about them and people with bulimia are very concerned and will do their best to hide their disorder.
What is craving/psychological dependence?
It is frequently used to describe a forceful urge to use drugs
What is the difference between major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder?
Major depressive disorder include acute, but time limited, periods of depressive symptoms while those with dysthymic disorder struggle with more chronic but less severe depression.
Narcissistic PD social learning theory causal factors
-Theodore Millon: results from doting, indulgent parents. Ultimately dev a grandiose sense of self, based upon little if any evidence or accomplishment.
Minor medical complications of Anorexia Nervosa
- Lanugo
-Loss of bone mass
- Dec body temp
- Dry, scaly skin
- Constipation
-Dec thyroid function
- Dec blood pressure
- Des breathing rate
- Brittle nails
- Brittle hair and hair loss
Causes of eating disorders (6)
- Social and cultural factors- Media- Family influences - Biological Influences, including genetics and low serotonin levels in patients with bulimia - Psychological Influences; perfectionism, low self esteem, anxiety, elevated negative emotions- Dieting; trend which is increasing significantly
A client who is a member of a minority group expresses negative feelings about her own culture and positive feelings toward the dominant (Anglo) culture. From the perspective of the Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model, this client is in which stage
a. conformity
20) When considering a curvilinear relationship between two variables, it is important to recognize that
two variables could be related in spite of low strength in their relationship.
Substance Dependnce vs Substance Abuse
-level of impariment of SD is much more sever
What are the most prominent disorders that co-occur with Somatoform Disorders? What are possible explanations for the comorbidity?
Depression & anxiety. Either condition may cause the other, or both could be caused by a 3rd variable, such as life stress
Sara notices a lump on her side. She goes to her physician because she is worried that it is cancer. The physician sends her for a biopsy. During the three weeks between first noticing the lump and getting her results that it is not cancer, Sara was almos
has no mental disorder.
what is behiovior genetics and what are its methods
behavioral genertics seeks to identify the extent to which an abnormal behavior is inherited its methods include: # -Family Method- identifies persons who have a disorder and then examines whether various relatives of the index cases have a greater likelihood of developing the mental disorder# Twin method compares the incidence of a disorder between twins and identifies the disorder of interest in one of the twins and then determines the likelihood of whether the other twin will also have the same disorderadoptee method- determines whether a child born to a person with a disorder/ but adopted out at birth and raised away from the biological parents will develop the same disorder
"Atypical" Anti-Psychotics *Eg *Improve *Caveats
*Clozaril, Risperdal, Abilify *Neg. and Pos. Sxs*$$$$, Significant Wt. Gain
64) A client who has habitual negative thoughts of being a failure and worthless would be described as having
negative automatic thoughts in Aaron Beck’s cognitive theory of depression
What did Bruch (1982) assert “struggle for control” as a major psychological factor that contributes to eating disorders?
Girls with eating disorders seem to be exceptionally "good": conforming and eager to please, attempt to please others, and overly compliant
What is the difference between Bipolar I and Bipolar II?
Bipolar I disorder is diagnosed in individuals who experience one or more manic episodes with the possibility, though not the necessity, of having experienced one or more major depressive episodes. A diagnosis of Bipolar II is given to the individuals who has had one or more major depressive episodes and have had an episode I which they become sufficiently energized to meet the criteria for a hypomanic episode, but have never experienced a full blown manic episode.
Prevalence of Narcissistic PD: Gender Common and normal amongst
75% are M Teens
Individuals explain negative events on three dimensions -
Stable VS Dynamic (how easy it is to change)
Global VS Specific (how wide spread it is in one's life)
Internal VS External (personal attribution of cause for negative events)
What is a situationally predisposed panic attack?
A case in which a person has a tendency to have a panic attack in a situation but does not have one every time.
According to Brady, the best tx for reducing a phobic anxiety reaction is one that entails:
a. actual in-vivo exposure to the anxiety-producing stimulus
b. systematic desensitization and imagined exposure to the stimulus
a. actual in-vivo exposure to the anxiety-producing stimulus - the more realistic the tx sit, the better the result with phobias and fears
Fragile X

The X chromosome shows a weak spot, where it appears to be bent or broken
This is not as “clear” as Trisomy 21. It may be related to other developmental disabilities. No one really sure exactly what happens or how.
Prevalence: *Gender *Highest amongst what population
75% of cases are FClinical
What do you have to have for it to be a phobia
The fear has to be stressing or debilitating
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