Abnormal Psychology 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Opiates
Herion
oxycontin
percoset
methadone
hormone
chemical messenger
Chorea
involuntary muscle movements
Panic disorder
Treatment-Buspar-benzodiazepines (highly addictive after 60 days with bad long term effects)-meds and cognitive or behavioral therapy
Genotype
Persons total genetic endowment
Enuresis/Encopresis
inappropriately controlled urination and defecation, respectively. Treated with bell and pad
Mania
-Elevated mood
-Intense, unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria
Insight
bringing formerly unconscious material into conscious awareness
_________ are intrusive and nonsensical thoughts, images, or urges an individual tires to eliminate or suppress.
Obsessions
Purging means
to get rid of
Dyspareunia
Persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse, male or female
Conditions involving physical complaints or disabilities occurring in the absence of any physical pathology that could account for them are
somatoform disorders
A chronic depression disorder
Dysthymic disorder
Gender:
Attempters
Completers
attempters: 3:1 women
completers: 3:1 men
Depersonalization Disorder
-persistent/recurrent experience of feeling detached from one's body or mental life, but impairment in reality testing-severe case can cause distress impairment in social and/or occupational functioning
Bipolar II
Hypomania with major depression
Defense Mechanisms
unconscious self-deceptions that reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxiety-producing memories, emotions, and impulses Denial Displacement Projection Rationalization Reaction formation: converting a painful feeling to its exact opposite Repression Sublimation: diverting id impulses into constructive outlets
What perspective addresses irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking?
Cognitive
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or acts (compulsions)
anxiety
-an emotional state characterized by physiological arousal, unpleasant feelings of tension, and a sense of apprehension or foreboding
-useful because it prompts us to seek regular medical checkups or motivates us to study for tests
-becomes abnormal when it occurs out of the blue, not in response to environmental changes or when its level is out of proportion to the threat
-can be experienced as an intense fear associated with panic attack or as a generalized foreboding or worry (apparent in generalized anxiety disorder)
Boderline PD characteristics
-fears of abandonment
-sucidal gestures or self mutilation
-chronic feelings of emptiness
-stress related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms
Eating Disorder Cohort effect for individuals born after ____
1960
Barbiturates & Benzodiazepines
tranquilizers, hypnotics, and sedatives. lead to a state of intoxication that is identical to that of alcohol. impaired judgement, slowness of speech, lack of coordination.
Studes
Hypnotized female to display abnormal symptoms, then she woke up and was fine
 
 
 
Encopresis
unintended defecation at least one time per month for 3 months; child over 4 years of age
 
 
usually occurs after episodes of severe constipation; changes in colon reduce ability to know when to use toilet, leading to accidents
Compulsion
Repetitive and rigid behavior or mental ac a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety
Vaginismus
involuntary spasm of musculature of outer third of vagina that interferes with sexual intercourse
occipital lobe
receives and interprets visual information.
sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic nervous system- prepares us for sudden activity and stress Parasympathetic- helps us calm down
bipolar disorder
-formerly known as maniac depression
-involves depressed and maniac episodes
-feelings of high energy
-poorly thought out behavior that usually leads to negative consequences
psychosocial
modern approach of therapy that focused on social and cultural factors as well as psychological
Rush associated w/heroin/Oxycontin
Intense feelings of warmth/ecstasy
Parasympathetic Nervous System
-Quiescent-Undoes the physiological responses of the sympathetic nervous system -Involved in anxiety disorders, especially panic and PTSD
insanity
Legal term for mental disorder, implying lack of control of ones behavior.
Psychotropic medications
chemical substances that affect psycholocial state
128) The treatment of choice for schizophrenia is typically
pharmacological.
Psychopathology
The scientific study of psychological disorders, their nature and their causes.
Conversion Disorder
serious somatic (bodily) symptoms that affect voluntary control of motor or sensory functions such as spontaneous blindness, deafness, paralysis or seizures without physical causes
The lifetime prevalence of OCD is approximately __________.
1.6%
Asylums
Sanctuaries or place of refuge meant solely for the care of the mentally ill.
Is there a familial association with BPD and mood disorders T/F
True
Causes of Anxiety disorders
Biological: Genetic tendency, temperament, reactive infant, anxious and jumpy
 
Psychological
 
Social
 
Integrated model: Triple vulnerability
Neurotransmitter thought to be associated with reward pathways/craving
Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
Charcot
Theory that the mind can cause conditions that look like neurological disorders, but truly are not, such a blindness or paralysis. Originally thought abnormal state had to be physical-somatogenic, then switched to psychogenic
somatogenic perspective
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes.
external validity
the degree to which experimental results can be generalized to other settings and conditions
Anxiety Involves
* Diffuse response (CNS & Cognitive)
self-efficacy expectancies
-beliefs in one's ability to accomplish particular tasks
-our expectations regarding our abilities to cope with the challenges we face, to perform certain behaviors skillfully, and to produce positive changes in our lives
-effects how we cope with stress
Disorganized symptoms of Schizophrenia
-Pressured Speech-Catatonia - Everything is slowed down
Coping with Rape
1. anticipatory stage-begins before rape(uh-oh this isn't good)
2. impact-during(fear for life=fear of death paralyzing)
3. post-traumatic recoil-immediately after rape(feel guilty here)*expressed-visibly upset,*controlled-looks super-calm
4. reconstitution-put life back together, nightmare common
Comorbidity percentages related to Social Phobia
comorbidity
50%+ anxiety disorder
50% depressive disorder
33% alcohol abuse
flat effect
-showing no emotional response at all
-associated with disorganized schiz.
idiographic strategy
unique information retrieved about an individual's personality, cultural background, or circumstances that lets therapists tailor treatment to that person
GABAnergic System
1. Activates Inhibitory neurons 2. Inhibits Amygdala 3. Dulls fear and anxiety
Catatonic Immobility
Maintain unusual posture for long periods of time
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)
(definition)
brief treatment approach that emphasized resolution of interpersonal problems and stressors, such as role disputes in marital conflict.
phobias
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
Reuptake
Process in which a sending neuron absorbs some of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, decreasing the amount left inn the synapse.
Libido
Freud's term for the emotional or psychic energy he believed to be originated by the innate drive for sexual pleasure
AXIS V
Global Assessment of Functioning; how a person has dealt with a disorder in the past year
4) Of all disorders reported in the U.S., the most common are alcohol dependence and
anxiety.
Ego
The conscious rational part of the personality. It develops by the end of the infant's first year, as a child interacts with the constraints of reality and is thus governed by the reality principle.
drug treatments for mania are often ________
norepinephrine antagonists
Rita was conformable at the zoo until the old terror gripped her at the insect display.
 
What phobia would this be? __________
Animal
Lifetime Prevalence
Covers full life spans and include both currently ill people and recovered people who have had the disorder. These tend to be higher than other prevalences.
Residual Schizophrenia
-attenuated syptoms in Criterion A or presence of Negative symptoms
20th century has been dubbed
The age of Anxiety
Substance dependence
More severe; refers to pattern of repeated self administration that often results in tolerance, the need for increased amoungs of drug to achieve intoxication, withdrawal symptoms, and compulsive drug-taking behavior
Negativity, Anger, and Aggression
We judge externalizing behavior harshly when children's intent is selfish and they show little remorse
Separation anxiety disorder
persistent and excessive worries about the safety of an attachment figure, fears of getting lost or kidnapped, etc.
reality testing
the ability to perceive the world accurately and to distinguish reality from fantasy
Fear involves
* Abrupt focus response (CNS & cognitive)* FFS: immediate alarm and escape routes* Related to BIS but seperate
Psychotropic Medications
Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
The first to work alot with blue collar children and families
Adler
developmental psychopathology
a new approach to abnormal psychology that emphasizes the importance of developmental norms to determine what constitutes abnormal behavior.
*The Cognitive Paradigm
- cognition involves the mental processes of perceiving, recognizing, judging, and reasoning- the cognitive paradigm focuses on how people structure and understand their experiences and how these experiences are related to past experiences stored in memory
Somatoform Disorders
occurs when a person manifests a psychological problem through physiological symptom. Such a person experiences a physical problem in the absence of any physical cause.
Hypochondriasis- has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause. Ex) headaches, cold
Conversion Disorder- will report the existence of a severe physical problem such as paralysis or blindness, and they will, in fact, be unable to move their arms or see.
systematic desensitization
gradual exposure to things (objects or situations) they feared
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Residual Schizophrenia
*Meet criteria for schizophrenia, but not a subtype*No longer meets criteria, but has some signs still
Catatonic schizophrenic
may not be paranoid, disorganized and catatonic or excessive meaningless energy
Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Extreme social detachment- Limited Range of Emotions- No interest in sexual activity- Very indifferent to praise and criticism, do not care what others think- Appear aloof, cold, indifferent
Adoption Studies -
A means of differentiating genetic effects from environmental effects by comparing the prevalence of mental disorders between adopted individuals and their biological parents.
Social Learning Theories
refers to several similar theoretical viewpoints, which hold that social behvaior and inner thoughs and feelings are learned through social interactions
Classification System
A list of disorders, along with descriptions and guidelines for making appropriate diagnoses.
99) The most common pedophilic acts are
touching and fondling.
PLASTICITY:
This refers to the ability of the brain to be altered
When Bleuler coined the term "schizophrenia" the kind of split he believed was central to the disorder was
a break with reality.
virtual reality therapy (VRT)
-behavior therapy technique that use computergenerated simulated environments as therapeutic tools
-a form of exposure therapy involving the presentation of phobic stimuli in a virtual reality environment
-people can overcome fears in virtual reality in much the same way they would have if they followed a program of gradual exposure in real-life situations
-frequent use for fear of heights or flying
-for this to work the person must believe that at some level it is real, they must be immersed in the situation
Schizoid PD definition
A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and restricted range of experssion of emotions in interpersonal settings
 
 
 
 
Schizoid PD


(Ted Kaczynski-unibomber)
Severely restricted range of emotions – appear cold, detached, aloof
Social detachment and withdrawal – does not desire close interpersonal relationships
No odd behaviors or language

not more common in families of schizophrenics


 
Adolsecents with CD
may experience generally low levels of arousal and are less anxious about being punished
Epidemiological Studies
reveal the incidence & prevalence of a disorder in a particular population
psychodynamic model
the model of Freud and his followers, in which abnormal behavior is viewed as the product of clashing forces within the personality
Positive symptoms for Schizophrenia:
Positive symptoms - Excesses (what "have")
-Hallucination, delusions, disorganized speech and behavior.
-Course is better
-Premorbid functioning is better
-More in females
-Responsive to medication
Multifinality
says that the same event can lead to different outcomes.
Moral Treatment
19th century asylums in the US treated patients properly
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
-depression that is only experienced during certain times of the year
-usually occurs in the winter due to lack of sunlight
Psych factors and EDO (General)
Overvalue wt/appearance Best 2 predictors: Dieting+Dissatisfied w/body
Brief psychotic disturbance
delusions that last one day-often most likely drug related
Dependent Personality Disorder: Causes
- Disruption in early attachment-- Loss of parent, sibling, etc.
Self Psychology
a theory used by Kohut that considers the individual's self-concept as the central organizing factor in psychological development
According to Berry's acculturation model, a member of a culturally-diverse group is exhibiting marginalization when she:
a. has rejected the mainstream culture
b. has rejected her own minority culture
c. is uninvolved in both mainstream and minority cultu
c. is uninvolved in both
What do dissociative disorders involve?
a disruption in conscious processes
___ Most studies show that in most cases of GAD, onset is early in adulthood as an immediate response to a life stressor.
False (more gradual)
Do genetics play a role in specific phobias?
Yes, especially blood-injury-injection.
Although not completely set in stone. They do contribute to specific phobias.
 
Unsure if it is genetics or modeling
Bad time of year for schizo
winter months with viral infections
 
 
 
in order to be found guilty....
must prove defendent has:
 
actus rea - guilty act
 
mens rea - guilty mind (intent to commit crime)
 
if they don't have mens rea, they can plead insanity and NOT be held accountable for crime commited (but first must admit to crime).
Can stress cause asthma?
No, but it can precipitate an attack
2 treatments used for difficult cases of Specific Phobia
-hierarchy of fear
-systematic desensitization
Psych effects of Marijuana (5)
1. Relaxed, sociable2. Shifts in emotion3. Interferes w/attn., memory, IQ4. Hallucinations, panic5. Impairment in drivin
Borderline Personality Disorder
- Shifts in mood- Anger that is inappropriate, intense, or uncontrollable- Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment- Chronic feelings of emptiness or boredom- Unstable, chaotic intense relationships characterized by slitting
Structured Observation (Analog Observation)
A method of observing behavior in which people are observed in artificial settings such as clinician's offices and laboratories.
46) PTSD is initiated (as described by the DSM-IV criteria A) when an individual experiences a traumatic event OR
witnesses a traumatic event.
Medical model: Main disagreements
The main disagreements in the field have to do with the nature of those diseases.
Misdiagnoses are common when looking at potential personality disorders because
many of the personality disorders share common features.
BFT in treating ADHD & ODD
Offers limited benefits for ADHD symptoms, but more promising for ODD. Begins with parent training where they are taught to identify specific problematic behaviors. Teach parents to be authoritative
Highest risk for suicide
Someone who express the desire to kill self
other forms of psychoanalysis
- ego analysis- views the ego as capable of controlling id impulses and the external environment. Those who suscribe to ego analysis place greater emphasis on a persons ability to control the environment and to select the time and the means for satisfying basic drives.-brief therapy focuses on a few specific problems and involves few sessions- interpersonal therapy- focuses on current personal problems. Therapists use empathic listening and make suggestions for improvement
Diagnostic Reliability and Personality D/O
Diff't clinicians tend to give diff't diagnoses Very unreliable
Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Treatment
- Focus on feelings and needs of others- Focus on ways to relate to others
Of the following relationships, the one which, according to empirical research, is stronger is:
a. job enlargement and job satisfaction
b. job turnover and job dissatisfaction
c. job satisfaction and productivity
b. job turnover and job dissatisfaction
Major Depressive Disorder
a mood disorder in which a person for no apparent reason experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
 
 
What are the subdivisions of PTSD?
Acute.  This specifier should be used when the duration of symptoms is less than 3 months.Chronic.  This specifier should be used when the symptoms last 3 months or longer.With Delayed Onset.  This specifier indicates that at least 6 months have passed between the traumatic event and the onset of the symptoms.
Competency to stand trial
a. At the time of the Trialb. Subject to period review (check back every 90 days to see if still incompetent)c. Psychotic, demented, mentally retarded
You either have it or you don't vs. everyone has a certain amount of everything.
Categorical diagnoses vs. Continuum
Main Psychoanalytic Goal Achieved Via
Interpretation *Client Behavior/Own Behavior/Reactions
Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are most associated with:
a. Huntington's disease
b. Pick's Disease
Alzheimer's Dementia
d. Vascular Dementia
d. vascular dementia - often preceded by a treatable disease or disorder, esp hypertension or diabetes mellitus
Most of the evidence suggests that, if schizophrenia is inherited, it
involves a multitude of genes that work in concert.
What does outcome research suggest about the effectiveness of various treatment options?
AA might be most effective, but there is little evidence
Most severe cases of Social Phobia are often comorbid with
Avoidant Personality Disorder is often cormobid with
In children, panic attacks
a. are more common than in adults
b. are less common than in adults
c. are about as common as in adults
d. are about as common as in adults but involve a different set of symptoms
b. are less common than in adults
How do lifetime prevalence rates of bulimia compare across different cohorts?
Cohort of 1960 had much greater prev of bulimia than did cohort of 1950
HOW COMMON IS DEPRESION IN THE USA?
7% OF MOSTLY MIDDLE AGE WHITE WOMEN SUFFERS FROM DEPRESSION
19) A research study produces a negative correlation between hours of sleep and test performance. Given this, what do we know about the relationship between these variables?
The more hours of sleep one gets, the poorer the test performance, or vice versa.
As defined by DSM, a dx of a personality disorder requires:
a. an onset prior to age 18
b. that symptoms are experienced as ego-syntonic
c. the presence of distress or impaired functioning
d. a decline in the previous level of functioning
c. the presence of distress or impaired functioning
A 30yo father of two is insecure about his self-worth, has difficulty setting goals, procrastinates, is easily bored, adn frequently tries new hobbies. When frustrated, he often has a coupld of beers. These symptoms are most suggestive of:
a. Dysthymia
b.
d. ADHD - symptoms listed are fairly typical of adult ADHD - differ somewhat for children and adults
/ 136
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online