Abnormal Psychology Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
frightening and anxiety-provoking dreams occurring during rapid eye movement sleep. the individual recalss the bad dreams and recovers alertness and orientation quickly
enduring period of emotionality
inability to experience pleasure, associated with some mood and schizophrenic disorders
disorder of movement involving immobility or excited agitation
paraphilia involving strong sexual attracton toward children
deviant sexual attration (pedophilia) directed toward a family member; often the attraction of a father toward a daughter who is maturing physically
process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences
free association
psychoalaytic therapy technique intented to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. the patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind witout censoring
somatoform disorder involving severe anxiety over belief in having a disease process without any evident physical cause
amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neurons, leading to action
psychotic symptoms of perceptual disturbance in which things are seen, heard, or otherwise sensed although they are not actually present
behavioral assessment
measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client's thoughts, feelings,and behavior in the actual problem situation or context
explanation of human behavior, including disfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
psychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploraton of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, started by Sigmund Freud
religious rituals that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body
expressed emotion (EE)
hostility, criticism, and overinvolvement demonstrated by some families toward a family member with a psychological disorder. this can often contribute to the person's relapse
silly and immature emotionality, a characteristic of some types of schizophrenia
people's irrational beliefs that thy are especially important (delusions of grandeur) or that other people are seeking to do them harm
psychotic behavior
severe psychological disorder cateogry characterized by hallucinations and loss of contact with reality
parasomnia that involves leaving the bed during nonrapid eye movement sleep
paraphilia in which theperson gains sexual gratification by rubbing against unwilling victims in crowds from which they cannot escape
brief psychotic disorder
psychotic disturbances involving delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech or behavior but lasting less than 1 month; often occurs in reaction to a stressor
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder involving recurrent episodes of uncontrolled excessive (binge) eating followed by compensatory actions to remove the food (eg. deliberate vomiting, laxative abuse, and excessive exercise)
process of establishing specif norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. this includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing datas
process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder
mental health professionals who are expectd to apply scientiic methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate own research...
cause or source of a disorder
pain disorder
somatoform disorder featuring true pain but for which psychological factors play an important role in onset, severity, or maintenance
dimensional approach
method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather tahn on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis
dissociative amnesia
dissociative disorder featuring the inability to recall personal information, usually of a stressful or traumatic nature
psychoanalytic model
complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based mainly on inferred inner forces
maintenance treatment
combination of continued psychosocial treatment, psychosocial treatment, medication, or both desiged to revent relapse following therapy
susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder
individual nerve cell; responsible for transmitting information
somatoform disorders
pathological convern of individuals with the appearance of functioning of their bodies, usually in the absence of any indentifiable medical condition
suicidal ideation
serious thoughts about committing suicide
classical conditioning
fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neural stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus
conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time
inverse agonist
chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter
chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands
purging techniques
in the eating disorder bulimia nervosa, the self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse used to compensate for excessive food ingestion
bariatric surgery
surgical approach to extreme obesity, usually accomplished by stapling the stomach to create a small stomach pouch or by bypassing the stomach through gastric bypass surgery
small, electronic device that is worn on the wrist like a watchand records body movements. this can be used to record sleep-wake cycles
inhibited orgasm
inability to achieve orgasm despite adequate sexual desire and arousal; commonly seen in women but relatively rare in men
schizophrenogenic mother
according to an obsolete, unsupported theory, a cold, dominating, and rejecting parent who was thoughtt cause schizophrenia in her offspring
inappropriate affect
emotional displays that are improper for the situation
bipolar I disorder
alternation of major depressive episodes with full manic episodes
moral therapy
psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments
NT whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory pleasure-seeling behaviors. overdose related to schizo and deficit related to Parkinson's disease
action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft
electroencephalogram (EEG)
measure of electrical activity patters in the brain, taken through electrodes placedon the scalp
deliberate faking of a physical or psychological disorder motivated by gain
ego psychology
.derived from PA, this theory emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders in failure of the ego to manage imulses and internal conflicts
degree to which a technique measures what it intends to measure
shorthand term for alter egos, the different personalities or identities in dissociative identity disorder
learned helplessness
Martin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attributiont hat they have no control over the stress in their lives
pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response
defense mechanisms
common patterns of behavorior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. in psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes origniating in the ego.
problems in getting to sleep or in obtaining sufficient quality sleep
double bind communication
according to an obsolete, unsupported theory, the practice of transmitting conflicting messages that was thought to cause schizophrenia
sexual dysfunction
sexual disorder in which the client finds it difficult to function adequately while having sex
sexual aversion disorder
extreme and persistent dislike of sexual contact or similar activities
sexual masochism
paraphilia in which sexual arousal is associated with experiencing pain or humiliation
breathing-related sleep disorders
sleep disruption leading to excessive sleepiness or insomnia, caused by a breathing problem such as interrupted (sleep apnea) or labored (hypoventilation) breathing
negative symptoms
less outgoing symptoms, such as flat affect and poverty of speech, displayed by some people with schizophrenia
body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
somatoform disorder featuring a disruptive preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance ("imagined ugliness")
prepared learning
an ability has been adaptive for evolution, allowing certain associations can be learned more readily than others
modeling (aka. observational learning)
learning through observation and imitation of te behavior of other individuals and condequences of that behavior
cognitive science
field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve info
false negative
assessment error in which no pathology is notes (test results are negative) when one is actually present
in a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. in psychopathology, these include mood disorders and eating disorders
psychophysiological assessment
measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional event such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal
dream analysis
PA therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts
psychodynamic psychotherapy
contemporary version of PA that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems
study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions
neuropsychological testing
assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's performance on behavioral tasks
double depression
severe mood disorder typified by maor depressve episodes superimposed over a background of dysthymic disorder
cyclothymic disorder
chronic (at least 2 years) mood disorder characterized by alternating mood elevation and depression levels that are not as severe as maic or major depressive episodes
generalized amnesia
loss of memory of all personal information, including identity
depressive cognitive triad
thinking errors in depressed people negatively focued in three areas: themselves, their immediate world, andtheir future
disorganized speech
style of talking often seen in people with schizophrenia, involving incoherence and a lack of typical logic patterns
male erectile disorder
recurring inaility in some men to attain or maintain adequate peile erection until cmpletion of sexual activity
male orgasmic disorder
recurring delay in or absence of orgasm in some men following a normal sexual excitement phase, relative to age and current stimulation. aka inhibited orgasm
dissociative trance disorder (DTD)
altered state of consciousness in which people firmly believe they are possessed by spirits, considered a disorder only where there is distress and disfunction
unconditional positive regard
acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation
psychosocial stages of development
in psychoanalysis, the sequence of phases a person passes through during development. each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximizal at that time
behavior therapy
array of therapy methods ased on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science, as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. it considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change
shared psychotic disorder (folie a deux)
psychotic disturbance in which individuals develop a delusion similarto that of a person with whom they share a close relationship
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
apparent lack of interest in sexual activity or fantasy that would not be expected considering the person's age and life situation
night eating syndrome
consuming a third or more of daily food intake after the evening meal and getting out of bed at least once during the night to have a high-calorie snack. in the morning, person is not hungry and does not eat bfast. they do not binge and seldom purge
catatonic type of schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia in which motor disturbances (rigidity, agitation, and odd mannerisms) predominate
flight or fight response
brain circuit in animals that when stimulated cuases an immediate alarm and escape response resembling human panic
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