Abnormal Psychology Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
benzodiazepines
Apashia
language disturbance
 
 
 
Personality disorder clusters
Odd/Eccentric

Paranoid
Shizotypal
Shizoid
Dramatic/emotional
Antisocial
Histrionic
Narcissistic
Borderline
Anxious/fearful
Avoidant
Dependent
Obsessive-compulsive
 
comorbidity
combination of disorders
AMENORRHEA
cessation of the menses
 
 
 
 
Avoidant PD, prevalence
1-7 %
Carl Jung
Started Analytical Psych.
 
seasonal patterns
seasonal affective disorder
Dorthea Dix
-coined "mentally ill"
-changed asylums to hospitals
-sick-->get BETTER
Anorexia features
-self evaluation,body weight influence
-deny problems with weight
-pride in ability to restrict
-OCD OCPD, depression
Darwin
Natural selection, evolution opened door as a way to study animal behavior with relationship to humans
 
3 Odd-Eccentric Disorders
 
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
 
Schizoid Personality Disorder
 
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Transexual
a strong persistent identification with another gender (not just desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being other sex)strong, persistent sense of discomfort with one's anatomic gender or with behaviors that typify gender (see genitals as repugnant, urinate like other gender, believe born into wrong body, wish for medical intervention/hormone treatments)no intersex condition (ambiguous sexual anatomy)surgery more practical from male to femaleprocess: psych screening, hormone therapy, live as gender for 1 year, consider surgical alteration
2 pharmacology treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Benzodiazepines
-Antidepressants
diathesis-stress model
individual inherits tendencies (vulnerabilities) that are potential for disorder/condition if put in specific stressful event
GAD
Symptoms-restlessness or feeling on edge, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating/blank mind, irritability, sleep disturbance, muscular tension3 needed for diagnosis
Phrenology
obsolete theory that different psychological behaviors were related to different parts of the brain and that these could be assessed by touching the surface of the skull
3) Approximately what total percentage of adults in the U.S. have suffered from a psychological disorder at some time in their lives?
48%
Catatonic Schizophrenic
Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements
Rachel turned down several lucrative job offers that involved public speaking for a low-paying desk job.
 
What phobia would this be? __________
Social
arousal or anxiety
-associated with trauma
-sleep disturbance, irritability
-exaggerated startle response
 
Bulimia Families
-ridgity, lack of conflict resolution
Introceptive awareness
Recognition of internal cues, including various emotional states as well as hunger
Wundt
First Psychology lab in germanyfounded psychology as a science
humors
According to Greek and Roman physicians, bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning.
Bulimia
Correlate with family that are enmeshed, dependent and have high conflict. Lack cohesion
Cognitive Distortions: Catastrophizing
expect worst case scenario
humanistic psychotherapy
strives to increase emotional awareness in order to help people make their own life choices and resolve their own dilemmas. In humanistic the relationship between the therapist and the client IS the treatment.
Paradigm
a conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works- that is, a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject, how to gather and interpret relevant data, even how to think about a particular subject.
Negative cognitive triad
The Self
 
The World
 
The Future
id
"animal within us"; strong sexual, aggressive behaviors, feelings, energies; operates according to pleasure principle; processes information by primary process (irrational, illogical)
Catatonic Depression
Excessive physical immobility or peculiar phys. movement
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
-Initially developed for depression-Depression caused by distorted thoughts-Help patients recognize and change maladaptive thought patterns
sampling
Individuals are relected who are representative of a much larger group of individuals
Skills
basic abilities such as intelligence, memory, attention, and language
103) Worldwide, the most commonly used drug is
caffeine.
Psychoanalysis
A form of psychotherapy, originally developed by Freud, that is intended to help patients become awake of long-repressed unconscious feelings and issues by using such techniques as free association.
Bipolar II Disorder
majority of episodes are depressive
Animal Phobia
Unreasonable, enduring fear of animals or insects that usually develops early in life.
Hormones
Chemical messengers secreted by a set of endocrine glands in our bodies.
social factors of ASPD
-inconsistent disipline, difficult temperment, severe in punishment, gangs
Acute Stress Disorder
Reaction following terrifying event. Often amnesia, emotional numbing, derealization.
May develop into PTSD
Substance abuse
More broadly conceived, less severe pattern of drug abuse that is defined in terms of interference with the person's ability to fulfill major role obligations at work and ate home, recurrent use of a drug in dangerous situations, and repeated legal difficulties associated with drug use
Attention deficits
Distractibility, freq shifts from one uncompleted activity to another, careless mistakes, poor organization or effort, and general "spaciness". If reflects an inability to maintain focus despite an apparent desire to do so.
abnormal psychology
The scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.
informed consent
the principle that subjects should recieve enough information about an experiment beforehand to decide freely whether to participate
Margaret has been suffering with dysthymia for several years and has sought treatment on several occasions. About one month ago she developed more severe symptoms of depression which have been maintained almost daily. The condition she is experiencing is
double depression.
positive psychology
a growing contemporary movement within psychology that focuses on the positive attributes of human behavior (optimism, love, hope)
Physical symptoms of Bulimia
-Damage to gastro-intestinal tract-Messed up electrolytes
Defective Genes
each chromosome contains thousands of genes that influence psychological and physical development.  Defective genes may adversly affect development (e.g., trisomy may cause Down syndrome)
Modeling
Learning how to do positive or negative reactions to situations by watching others perform it
Post-traumatic stress disorder
usually involved flashbacks or nightmares following a person's involvement in or observation of an extremely troubling event such as a war or natural disaster
 
Memory of the event cause anxiety
nomothetic strategy
determining general class of problems to which the presenting problem belongs
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Heavy alcohol use during pregnancy=slowed fetal growthRecommend NO alcohol
Sullivan's Tx for Psychotic d/o
Trusting therapist-pt relationshipTeaching adult ways of communicationInsight
Bipolar I D/O
(definition)
alternation of major depressive episodes with full manic episodes.
Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment
Treatment- Focus on prevention
Genital Stage
Psychosexual stage that ocurs around the age of 12, when childrens sex drives reemerge; if a child has successfully resolved the phallic stage, interst in sex turns toward heterosexual relationships.
Ego
in pschoanalytic theory, the part of the psyche that makes up the self or the "I." The part of the psyche that is conscious and most closely in touch with reality, and that functions as the "effective officer" of the personality
Psychopathology
the symptoms and signs of mental illness, including such phenomena as depressed mood, panic attacks, and bizarre beliefs
Relaxation Training
A treatment program that teaches clients to relax at will and calm themselves in stressful situations.
146) A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency differentiates
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder from the other personality disorders
Deviance
Statistical - different from the norm based on a s
Bio-Psycho-Social Studies
found that those who experience both childhood poverty and biological risk factors at birth demonstrated higher risk of criminal behavior
Panic disorder without agoraphobia(PD)
Panic attacks experienced without development of agoraphobia.
Disadvantages of Classification
loss of info, stigma, stereotyping, labeling, etc.
Schizotypal PD definition
A pervasive pattern of interpersonal and social deficiets marked by acute discomfort with and reduced capacity for close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricies of behavior
Learned Alarm
Conditioning to cues that may trigger an attack in the absence of any danger.
Electrolyte imbalance
a disturbance in the levels of potassium, calcium, sodium, and other vital elements found in bodily fluids that can lead to cardiac arrest or kidney failure.
neglected children
receive few of either type of rating
Behavior theory of Exhibitionism
Early in adolescence, sexual attraction, arousal and gratification was learned that way
peripheral nervous system
the somatic and autonomic nervous system
A rapid return of symptoms immediately after drug treatment is terminated is a common example of ________; a return to depressive symptoms after a period of spontaneous remission of symptoms is called a ________.
relapse; recurrence
Deinstituionlization
The practice begun in the 1960s of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals
Roger's Client Centered Therapy (Humanistic-Existential)
foundation for training psychotherapists- unconditional positive regard- empathic understanding- genuineness- congruence
HPA axis
- is responsible for the bodys response to stress and thus is relevant for several stress related disorders. Consists of hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal cortex
Specific Phobia
unwarranted fear of a situation of objects
free association
patients get to say whatever first comes to mind without usual censoring by therapist
Substance-induced Psychotic d/o
Any psych sxs possible: usually hallucinations or delusionsCaused by a substance
Anti-Social Personality Disorder
Cluster BConformity to law is lackingObligations are ignoredReckless disregard for anyone's safetyRemorse is lackingUnderhandedPlanning is insufficientTerrible temper3 criteria needed
serotonin (5-ht)
-travels all over the brain... doing everything & nothing-regulates emotion-genes related to 5-ht identified in several illnesses
Twin Studies -
A method of determining the heritability of a mental disorder by comparing the concordance, or agreement, rates between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs.
Classical Conditioning
where the response that an organism automatically makes to a certain stimulus is transferred to a new stimulus through an association between the two stimuli
Cognitive therapy
the belief that disorders are caused by flaws in thinking (BECK)
14) The human nervous system is composed of two parts, the
central and peripheral.
Bipolar II Disorder:
Mildly manic episodes and major depressive episodes
1. The presence of a hypomanic or major depressive episode
2. If currently in a hypomanic or major depressive episode, history of a manic episode
Bipolar Disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
diagnosis of panic attacks
person must have repeated, unexpected panic attacks followed by (at least one of)
-at least a month of persistent fear of subsequent attacks
-worry about the implications or consequences of the attack (fear of losing mind/control and going crazy)
-significant change in behavior (refusing to leave home or venture into public for fear of another attack)
alcoholism usually has
periods of heavy use and relative abstinence
projective tests
the person is presented with a series of ambiguous stimuli. (what you think cards look like etc)
Parental affection
Children who feel secure and valued by their parents are more compliant because they vaule their parents in return. Increasing parental affection should be a better way of treating externalizing behavior than increasing parental discipilne
Etiology of Bulimia: Behavioral/Cognitive
Accidental pattern people get stuck inFear of being fat that is out of realistic rangeThey think behavior is adaptive, they need an education about the goals they are trying to accomplish
conscious
to freud, the part of the mind that corresponds to our present awareness
Panic Disorder
Children can experience it but are not capable of pairing cathastrophyc thoughts to symptoms. Children are not able to link physical symptoms or illness to internal factors until early adolescent years.
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Delusions from person manifest in another person
cerebral cortex divided into 4 lobes
frontal lobeparietal lobetemporal lobeoccipital lobe
() selective seratonine reuceptors inhibitors
ANTIDPRESSANTS DRUGS UNDER THE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR UNIPOLAR THAT INCREASE SERATONIN WITHOUT EFFECTING OTHER'S NEUROTRANSMITTERS
Client-Therapist relationship in psychoanalysis
1. Provides most undistorted info about conflicts2. Most direct route to cure3. Allows client to show psychological tactics
Problem w/dx subtypes of schizophrenia
Low reliability Poor predictive validity Lots of overlap
Schizophrenia: Disturbances in Thought Content (4)
1. Thought Broadcasting2. Thought Insertion3. Though Withdrawal4. Delusions of being controlled
A mother passes the trait of color blindness onto her son, but is not color blind herself. This is a characteristic of the mother's:
a. genotype
b. phenotype
c. chromosome
d. RNA
a. genotype
What is a disorder that refers to intense anxiety without any apparent provocation?
Panic disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity
Active Phase of Schizophrenia
Must have impairment in function in two or more of the following
 
-delusions, diorganized speech grossly disorganizedd or catanoic behaviors, hallucinations, negative symptoms
wrong misdiagnoses of dissociative disorders
many ppl diagnosed with schizophrenia, BPD, depression, panic disorder, or substance abuse
receptor site
a part of a dendrite on a receiving neuron that is structured to receive a neurotransmitter
What theory says that all of us are predisposed to something, and if we are put in the right conditions, we will develop the disorder.
Diatheses Stress
Pleasure Principle 
The Id causes tension when it is not satisfied. making the person seek pleasure
Social network and alcohol abuse
Social influence (having friends who drink)-->drinking-->Social selection (choosing friends who drink)-->
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder(and co morbidity)
- Fixation on 'doing things right'- Fixed perception of being perfect- Preoccupation with control, details and rules, objects and money- Rigid and stubborn- Usually very serious, inflexible- Unable to throw things away Co morbid with:Panic disorder
Non Compos Mentis
A term coined during the middle ages that pertained to a person who did not show mental disability at birth. However, their deviant behavior was not continuous, and they might show long periods of recovery. (not of sound mind)
92) Until about 25 years ago, a homosexual orientation
was a psychological disorder.
The DSM II:
Published in 1968, and used a more biomedical paradigm
Which statement about personality disorders is accurate?
are in contact with reality, although they may have transient psychotic symptoms.
What might be some neuropsychological problems that contribute to Learning Disorders? How do “biological causes” fit into the etiological picture?
Research hasn't identified any psych or bio cause that is common to all LDs; typically, etiology is attributed to some biological cause, and considerable research has been conducted on brain functions
Over the past two years, Kelly has experienced depressive episodes three different times. Two of the three episodes occurred in the winter and the third occurring last spring. It is now winter and Kelly's depressive symptoms once again are consistent with
recurrent major depressive disorder
Biological & Genetic factors causing PTSD
-traumatic events trigger changes in the brain and body
-childhood experiences-previous child abuse
-lack of social support
-severity of trauma-more severe & direct (proximity) exposure
-those who react more physical symptoms of anxiety have higher risk of PTSD
Cog. Therapy vs. IPT vs. Meds *Which was most effective early on? *"" w/less severe cases? *'' w/most severe?
*Meds*Placebo=Meds=IPT=CT*Meds>IPT>Placebo
Sexual Sadism and Masochism
- The "Sadist" - sexual arousal by inflicting pain- The "Masochist" - suffers and pain
An adolescent with Deep Dyslexia will:
A. HAVE TROUBLE READING irregularly spelled words but read regularly spelled words acurately
b. substitute words with similar meaning while reading
c. be unable to read a sentence she has just written
d. be unable to
b. substitute words with similar meanings while reading -
Deep syslexia involves several types of reading errors including semantic paralexia, which involves substituting words with similar meanings (e.g., foot for hand, sleep for dream, doctor for physician).
What is the ecletic approach?
the combination of one or more approaches to explain behavior
Many more women are diagnosied with Panic disorders. How do men cope with it (generally)
Not toughing it out...
Consuming a lot of alcohol.. not healthy
How do psychostimulants affect the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
Increase CNS activity, as well as, alertness, arousal, and attention. Most commonly used treatment for ADHD
What is incidence rate?
The number of new cases of a disorder during a specific time
DSM-IV-TR Bipolar D/O Criteria
1. Some version of mania2. Plus 3 (4 if mania is irritable type) *Psychomotor agitation or increase in goal directed behavior *Excessive talking *Racing thoughts *Less sleep *Grandiosity *Distractible *Increased involvement in high risk pleasurable activity (sex, spending)
Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders (5)
1. First steps: admitting there is a problem, detoxification2. Biological treatments: Antabuse, withdrawal 3. Twelve step programs (AA) 4. Relapse Prevention; harm reduction5. Structural Relapse Prevention - Cognitive Behavioral Approach - Short treatment
What is the flat effect?
when a person displays no emotion at all
Which classes of drugs are associated with substantial tolerance effects?
Opiates, such as heroin, and CNS stimulants, such as amphetamine and cociane
What are developmental milestons and critical periods in children?
The points in time where on average the majority of children have achieved some next level in their devolopment. Critical points are points in time where certain processes develop very rapidly but if interfered with in some way may never develop properly
Describe the role of supernatural beliefs in efforts to understand mental disorders during the Middle Ages
What were the historical views of the disorder of meancholia (known today as depression)?
What are the four major DSM-IV symptoms of anorexia?
1. Refusal to maintain body weight 2. Intense fear of gaining weight 3. Disturbance in the way weight or body shape is experienced 4. Amenorrhea
What information is included in the DSM-IV?
It defines a mental disorder. A categorical system that tells you weather you have something or not. Yes or no.
WHich of the following is true regarding an infant's crying?
a. for all infants, one cry represents all human emotions
b. in a newborn infant, cries for hunger, anger and pain are distinguishable
d. in a newborn infant, cries for hunger, anger, and pain are distinguishable - the fourth cry - one for attention, develops later than the other types - about three weeks after birth
LT effects of IP for EDO
High relapse usually due to: Unwillingness to change Not doing Outpt. $$$$
Which of the following is the reason why many experts recomment 6 to 8 sessions as the duration of crisis intervention therapy?
a. Six to eight sessions is about how long many crises last
b. Most people who are experienncing a crisis would not be able to
.a. six to eight sessions is about how long a crises lasts
DA Reward System: *What is it *Activated by
*Sys. of neurons which relies on DA to produce pleasurable sensations *Eating, sex, stimulant drugs
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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