abnormal Psychology terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
drug addicts
Chapter Five
Neuron
A nerve cell
Thalamus
Sensory relay center
Substance Abuse
-functional impairment
-harmful results without tolerance withdrawal compulsive drug use
 
 
Treatment of Schizotypal
 
Cognitive-Behvaioral therapy
 
anti-psychotic drugs (treat side effects and
may not target symptoms)
prognosis
anticipated outcome of disorder
Danger
To oneself or others
Anhedonia
lack of pleasure or interest
The individual with ________ personality disorder is likely to be described as rigid and cold.
obsessive-compulsive
ID
basic biological needs & desires
Asperger's Disorder
 
The essential features of Asperger's Disorder are severe impairment in social interactions and a restricted repertoire of behaviors, interests, and activities with no substantial delays in language, self-help skills, cognitive deve
High neuroticism, High extraversion
Histrionic PD
abnormailty
maladaptive (disturbing to the individual)
-disturbing to others
-not shared by many members of population
-irrational; does not make sense to the average person
Catatonia
Motor AbnormalitiesCan be repetitive, complex gestures, or wildly flailing limbs
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Symptoms:
excessive and uncontrollable worry
has to be 2 or more areas in the person's life (ex. grades and family )
tension
fatigue
spiral--> the worry builds up gradually, one thing to another 
Prevalence: more prevalent in womenOnset: usually early adulthood
 
Temperament
characteristic styles of relating with the world Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism
Obsessions
persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that seem to invade a person’s consciousness
Hippocrates
Four Humors (developed after 4 seasons):
-Blood-Sanguine (Spring)
-Phlegm-Phlegmatic (Winter)
-Yellow Bile-Choleric (Summer)
-Black Bile-Melancholic (Autumn)
Catharsis
Emotional release (found when freud induced hypnosis)
Schizoid PD requires DSM
4 of 7
Identify the phobia:
Rita was terrified at the zoo when she saw the insects
Animal Phobia
avoltion
lack of will or volition; indeciveness, ambivalence, or loss of willpower; apathetic and ceases to work toward personal goals or to function independently
Fixated pedophiles
Follows patterns of paraphilia; enduring, exclusive, long lasting, part of the person
sanism
the negative stereotyping of people who are identified as mentally ill
IQ
A general score derived from intelligence tests that is considered to represent a person's overall level of intelligence
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
Delusions and Hallucinations
Dysfunction
some involuntary disturbance of normal psychological functioning
Edward Thorndike
Formulated the Law of Effect
Premature ejaculation
ejaculation before partner (declines with age)**orgasm
Obesity
-epidemic disease in industrial world (20-50%)-caused by inactivity, binging, genes-Tx: difficulty is maintaining the weight loss; bariatric surgery
Paranoid Personality disorder
Axis 2Spouses fidelity questionedUnforgivingSuspicious of othersPerceive attacks everywhere and reactEnemy or friend-no in betweenConfiding in others fearedThreats perceived in innocent eventsNeed 4-male dominant-closest person most likely to get hurt
Maintenance Treatment
(definition)
combination of continued psychosocial treatment, medication, or both designed to prevent relapse following therapy
Neurotransmitters
Biochemicals released from a sending neuron that transmit messages to a receiving neuron in the brain and nervous system.
AXIS III
General Medical Disorders (which might have relevance to psychological problem)
44) People who suffer from generalized anxiety disorder are characterized by excessive worry about
everything.
Axis I:
Clinical Disorders
- Almost anything you can think of, ex. depression, anxiety, ADHD
Dissociative Disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts and feelings
__________ is a radical treatment for OCD involving a surgical lesion to the cingulate bundle. 
Psychosurgery
 
OCPD defintion
A pervasive pattern of preoccupation iwth orderliness perfectionism and metnal and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibilty openness and efficenicy
Treatment of DID
-antidepresseant and anti anxiety medications reduce distress not symptoms
 
psychiatry
the branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorders.
explicit memory
conscious recollection of a past event
Course/Outcome of Anorexia
Emerges between 14-18Some women recover from it (once they establish themselves, or get treatment)People can DIE from it - 5-10% will starve themselves to death
 
 
 
Conduct disorder, prevalance
3-7%
 
40% later diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder
 
80% unemployed
 
 
Elements of Fear
Cognitive (expectation of harm)
 
Somatic (bodily response)
 
Emotional (dread)
 
Behavior (Involuntary Reactions)
Lycanthropy
People thought they were possessed by wolves or other animals.
Biological Etiological Theory (Dopamine theory):
-Dopamine Hypothesis: Amphetamine psychosis (increase dopamine), Medications (phenothiazines; decrease functional dopamine), More dopamine receptors (some individuals with schizophrenia)

-Newer Dopamine Theory: Excess mesolimbic pathway and excess cognition and emotion. Deficit in the prefrontal area and a deficit in attention, motivaiotn, organization
rational-emotive therapy (RET)
designed to challange cognitive distortions; searches for a client's irrational beliefs, points out the impossibility of fulfilling them, and uses any and every technique to persuade the client to adopt more realistic beliefs.
Stimulants
drugs that tend to increase feelings or alertness, reduced feelings of fatigue, and enable a person to stay waake over sustained periods of time.
examples
cocaine
methamphetamine
MDMA/Ectasy
Ritalin
Lifetime prevalence of Social Phobia
12% Lifetime Prevalence
histrionic personality disorder
disorder that involves overly dramatic behavior
course
pattern of disorder; differs for every disorder: age of onset, sex ratio, prevalence
Type 2 Alcoholism+Genetics
*Early in life*Genes outweigh environment*Men
Specific phobias
Anxiety disorder-all have feelings of anxiety, but only in presence of object feared
Agoraphobia
anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult
 
Not a codable D/O
 
 
Dimensional -
An approach to classification that argues that since behavior exists on a continuum, the differences amongst types of abnormal behavior and between normal and abnormal behavior are quantitative in nature.
Superego
Part of the unconscious that consists of absolute moral standards internalized from one's parents during childhood and one's culture.
External Validity
an experimental situation that is percieved to relate closely to a real world situation
Negative Reinforcement
"Stamping in" any behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when behavior occurs (alarm in morning)
For classical conditioning to be effective, the _____ must precede the _____.
CS; UCS
What somatoform disorder occurs when a person has frequent physical complaints for which has no physical cause?
Hypochondriasis
Naturalism
The belief that all of reality consists of material substance and what is immaterial (e.g., God, the will, the mind) either does not exist or is irrelevant for understanding truth regarding human behavior and emotion.
- According to this view, the brain as a physical entity is the source of our thinking and feeling and doing.
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
-Decrease in normal fxns
-flat affect
-no motivation
-avoidance
-impaired social skills
-withdrawal
-inability to feel pleasure
what relationships exist between ethinicity and the prevalence of anxiety disorders?
-evidence from nationally representative samples of US adults showed generally lower rates of some anxiety disorders among ethnic minorities
Drugs of Abuse
legal to illegal drugs also perscription
 
-more than 1 drug is not unsual
Anorexia Nervosa
-refusal to maintain a normal body weight
-fear of weight gain
-amenorrhea
-distorted body shape and image
What is sixth feature?
Significant disturbance in one's ability to work, interact with others, or care for oneself; these abilities are markedly different thatn before the person's onset of symptoms.
what's the most cost effective treatment for schizo?
assertive community treatment
Regressed pedophiles
Under times of stress, move backward to a lower level of adjustment (like a child), engage in pedophilic behavior
What are benzodiazepines?
Medications that bind to receptor sites of GABA neurons, which become activated by this stimulation, leading to the inhibition of the brain sites involved in panic attacks. Benzodiazepines are the most effective antianxiety medications.
cerebral cortex
the wrinkled surface area of the cerebrum responsible for processing sensory stimuli and controlling higher mental functions, such as the use of thinking and languages
Delirium:
Young children and older adults are at the highest risk for delirium. Common causes of delirium in the elderly include drug intoxication, uncontrolled diabetes, infections and fever, stroke, head trauma, and cancer. The elderly are also at high risk for delirium immediately after surgery, especially hip surgery.
psych causes of cancer
weakened immune system (stress) increases susceptibilty to cancer (inconclusive)
-support programs can improve psychological adjustment (relaxation, stress management, coping thoughts)
 
other psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia
-brief psychotic episode-Schizo-affective disorder-Schizo-phrenoform disorder
Reformed French asylums in late 18th century
Pinel, P
General Paresis
1700s term to define the symptoms of
delusions and paralysis
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
persistent unwanted thoughts cause someone to feel the need to engage in a particular action
Sociocultural Models of Suicide
Media coverage of prominent suicides-->Increases in suicide
Two key emotions on the continuum
1. Depression2. Mania
Dissociative Identity Disorder
-2 or more distinct personalities (alters)-Memory gaps for periods of time when switching between alters-Comorbid with: PTSD, major depression, borderline personality, phobias, substance abuse
Define: Bipolar I
- Major depressive episodes- Full manic episodes
retrospective studies
focus on individuals who have already aquired the disorder of interest
Correlation
an association or linkage or two or more events
Benzodiazepines
The most common group of anti anxiety drugs; includes Valium and Xanax.
55) According to your text, dysthymic disorder can best be conceptualized as
chronically low mood.
Unipolar Depression
-Women outnumber men 2 to 1
Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthymic Disorder
The drug that can create a state most like psychosis is
amphetamine.
Mental Hygiene Movement
Advocated a method of treatment that focused almost exclusively on the physical well being of hospitalized mental patients.
Which of the following seems to have the most impact in decreasing the amount of criminal activities of people with psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder?
growing older
2 subtypes of anorexia
1. Restricting type 2. Binge eating/purging
Typical symptoms of internalizing behavior
Sadness, fears, and somatic complaints; as well as, mood and anxiety disorder indicators. ex: feeling worthless or tense. There isn't a separate category for children's internalizing disorders
What is an obsession?
A persistent and intrusive idea, thought, or image.
 
 
 
 
ALI/Brawner Rule
 
ALI RULE: AT THE TIME OF THE CRIME, AS A RESULT OF MENTAL DISEASE OR DEFECT, THE PERSON LACKED SUBSTANTIAL CAPACITY TO EITHER APPRECIATE THE CRIMINALITY OR TO CONFORM TO LAWS
changed the standard being applied to the persons behavior, did not change the fact that the prosecution had to prove someone was sane.
 
o   Antisocial personality disorder specifically excluded from this
Burden of proof still on prosecution.
 
Intelligence Test
A test designed to measure a person's intellectual ability
The continued need for the body to adapt to stress.
Allostatic load.
PTSD Military Combat
-right away 12% symptoms PTSD, 6mo. later 17% get symptoms
-reservists immediately 13%, 6mo. later 25%
*community support helpful
*rates increase insignificantly in deployments, marital problems, divorce
*physically wounded show less symptoms than those not physically wounded
Causal factors of Specific Phobia: according to operant conditioning
-explains maintenance of fear
-through NegRFT (avoidance learning)
implicit memory
someone acts on basis of past events but can't remember the event
Seasonal Depressive D/O
Episodes at a particular time of year
Major Depressive Episode
(definition)
most common and severe experience of depression, including feelings of worthlessness, disturbances in bodily activities such as sleep, loss of interest, and inability to experience pleasure, persisting at least 2 weeks.
Schizoid Personality Disorder: Treatment
Treatment - must address social isolation - teach social skills, how to interact with people and have emotion
Internal Consistency
Do different parts of the test yield the same results?
A person with Dissociative (functional) Amnesia will most likely exhibit:
a. anterograde amnesia involving an inability to acquire new information
b. retrograde amnesia involving a loss of memory for events related to a trauma
c. anterograde amnesia invol
c. anterograde amnesia involving primarily a loss of memory for events related to personal identity
lifetime prevalence
total proportion of a people in the population who have ever had a disorder in their lives
Self-schemas
our views of who we are, what we might become, and what is important to us.
 
What are symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?
-obsessions or compulsions that are not due to medical illness or drug use
-obsessions or compulsions that cause major distress or interfere with everyday life
The Insanity Defense
a. Unable to tell right from wrong, product of an irresistable impulse, product of a mental diseaseb. At the time of the crimec. Once it's done, it's doned. Very few casese. Guilty but mentally ill (alternative); whether crime was committed, or decide if person was psychotic
Conduct Disorder
 
Involves a repetitive, persistent pattern of behavior involving violation of the basic rights of others or of age-appropriate social rules and norms. The diagnostic features are classified in DSM-IV in terms of four categories - aggre
Childhood-Onset Type is diagnosed when the onset of symptoms is prior to age 10; Adolescent-Onset Type is diagnosed when symptoms begin at age 10 or later. Prognosis is worse for the Childhood-Onset Type. According to T. Moffitt, the differences in severity of symptoms and prognosis for the Childhood- and Adolescent-Onset Types (which she refers to as "life-course persistent" and "adolescent-limited") are due to differences in etiology. Specifically, the Childhood-Onset Type is the result of a combination of neuropsychological deficits and exposure to adverse environmental factors, while the Adolescent-Onset Type most often reflects a temporary "maturity gap" that involves a desire to assume adult responsibilities and obtain the rewards associated with antisocial behavior.
What is the difference between problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping?
In problem-focused coping, the individual reduces stress by acting to change whatever it is that makes the situation stressful. An individual tries to "fix" things. In emotion-focused coping, a person does not change anythig about the situation itself but tries to improve his/her feelings about the situation.
When 50-90% of "completers" do so
Recovering from a depressive episode
Observational learning and depressants
Use as a coping strategy Expectations effect experience
Social Phobia
(criteria)
- marked & persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamilar ppl or to possible srutiny by others, with the fear that one will be embarrassed or humiliated.
- exposure to the feared social situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, sometimes panic attack
- recognition that the fear is excessive or unreasonable 
- the feared social or performance situation is avoided or are endured with intense anxiety or distress
- the avoidance or distress in the feared social or perfomance situation interferes significantly w/ the person's life & healthy functioning
Predictive Validity -
A type of validity that is concerned with the future and the stability or other outcomes of the disorder over time.
The neuropsychological term and definition that is incorrectly matched is:
a. agnosia - the loss of ability to recognize various non-language types of stimulation
b. ataxia - loss of muscular coordination
c. aphasia - disturbance of language
d. apraxia -
d. apraxia- problems in voluntary movement
7) In operant conditioning, a reinforcer serves to
increase frequency a behavior it follows
Today physicians occasionally prescribe amphetamines for all of the following EXCEPT
staying awake, such as to drive or study.
 
Examples of:
Social Phobias
A man finds it difficult to walk down the street because he’s self-conscious and feels that people are watching him from their windows. Worse, he may run into a person on the sidewalk and be forced to say hello to them. He’s not sure he can do that. His voice will catch, his "hello" will sound weak, and the other person will know he’s frightened
What is the difference between imaginal flooding and "in vivo" flooding?
Imaginal flooding uses imagery while "in vivo" flooding actually exposes the client to the feared object or situation until the client no longer feels anxious.
Multiaxial System of the DSM-IV:
Axis I - Major mental disorder (schizophrenia, anorexia)
Axis II - Underlying pervasive or personality conditions as well as mental retardation. (anti social personality disorders)
Axis III - General Medical Conditions
Axis IV - Psychosocial Stressors (whats going on in patients life)
Axis V - Global Assessment of functioning (on a scale from 100 to 0) (severity of case)
Patients' reactions to Specific Phobia
-Recognizes their fear is excessive or unreasonable
-Exposure produces immediate fear response, resembling panic attack (but w/ identifiable trigger)
- makes great effort to avoid the feared stimulus
Distorted thoughts in AN (3)
1. Low opinion of body shape2. Overestimate size3. Maladaptive attitudes/misperceptions
Avoidant Personality Disorder: Treatment
- Target anxiety; when and why- Teach social skills - Treatment similar to social phobia-- Graded exposure - thinking of social situations and taking part in relaxation techniques-- Cognitive Restructuring: addressing negative schemas of social situations and replacing them
Research comparing the effects of biofeedback and relaxation training on hypertension has found that:
a. biofeedback is less effective than relaxation traing
b. biofeedback is more effective than relaxation training
c. biofeedback adn relaxation training
c. biofeedback and relaxation training are about equally effective
Which of the following best explains why women tend to not "hold their booze" as well as men?
Women metabolize alcohol less quickly than men.
How might perfectionism contribute to eating disorders?
It's an endless pursuit of control; they set unrealistically high standards, self-critical, and demand high performance
What is a brief psychotic disorder?
A disorder characterized by a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms which last less than 3 months
Epidemiologist focus on two critical pieces of data:
How many people suffer from any particular disorder? This is known as prevalence (which can be measured as annual - how many people at any time during a particular year - or as lifetime - how many people at any time during their lifetimes).
How many new cases are diagnosed every year? This is known as incidence.
Diagnostic Stability and Personality D/O
1/2 get another diagnosis 2 yrs later "Should" be stable
Studies comparing the utilization rates of mental health services for whites to those of members of culturally-diverse groups indicate that
a. the rates are higher for members of culturally diverse groups
b. the rates are lower for members of all cultural
c. the rates are higher for some culturally-diverse groups but lower for others - - some groups tend to underutilize mental health services (Asian and Hispanic) while others overutilize them (AA)
Which of the following do those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have in common?
fear of being or becoming fat
What percent of children are estimated to have ADHD, ODD and/or CD?
Between 3-5% are estimated to have ADHD; 5-15% have ODD and/or CD
Borderline PD: *High comorbidity w/ *High rates of
*PTSD, MDD, Substance Abuse, EDO*Suicide
20. The best conclusion that can be drawn about tx for panic disorder is that:
a. tricyclics are more effective than cognitive-bx therapy
b. cognitive-bx therapy is more effective than tricyclics
c. tricyclics and cognitive-bx therapy are more equally eff
d. tricyclics and cognitive-bx therapy are about equally effective, and there seems to be an advantage to combining the two tx
What are the findings from Structural Brain Imaging (MRI)? What part of the brain are implicated
Most have a decrease in total volume of brain tissue; mildly to moderately enlarged lateral ventricles
The path of the Neuron
Chemical signals bombard the receptor sites and when just enough latch on the receiving neuron activates, sending electrical impulses from the dendrite to the soma to the axon in order to repeat the same process. 
OCPD should not be confused with OCD
-OCPD is ego synotic and OCD is ego dystonic
A 16yo boy who was previously a good student has been acting out, has problems concentrating, and has not been sleeping. What is your dx?
a. Conduct DO
b. Bipolar 1, most REcent Episode Manic
b. Bipolar 1, most Recent Episode Manic
ASPD: *Characterized by: *Age requirement
*Persistent disregard and violation others' rights*18
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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