Abnormality 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
substance withdrawal
Chapter Nine
Less severe Mania
Hypomania
Compulsion
(definition)
repetitive, ritualistic, time-consuming behavior or mental act a person feels driven to perform.
Avolition
lack of will power
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The most widely used personality inventory. Consists of 550 self-statements to be labeled true or false
Depressants affect what system?
GABAnergic
Sin into Symptom
by Menninger
Blunted Flat Affect
-lack of expressiveness
How to treat phobias
Exposure-based exercises
 
 
(2)
 
metabolic disturbances theory of mental retardation

Metabolic disturbances – brain isn’t growing properly
Phenylketonuria (PKU): Inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
Tay-sachs disease: a defect of lipid metabolism due to the absence of the enzyme hexosominidase
Prevention
Interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop
medulla
controls various bodily functions involved in sustaining life, including heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
Fetishism
sexual attraction to nonliving objects
Functional abnormality in MDD
Amygdala hyperreactivity
Obsessive-Compulsive D/O
(criteria)
 
- Obsessions
- Compulsions
- Recognition that the obessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable
- the thoughts, impulses, or behaviors cause marked distress, consume more than an hour a day, or significantly interfere w/ the person's normal functioning or relationships.
Behavioral approaches dealing with Autistic children would employ primarily:
shaping
Panic Disorders
-Often accompanied by agoraphobia
Symptoms:
1. Recurrent unexpected panic attacks
2. A month or more of one of the following after at least one of the attacks.
a. Persistent concern about having additional attacks
b. Worry about the implications or consequences of the attack
c. Significant change in behavior related to the attacks
Dependent Personality Disorder
excessively lacking in self-confidence; subordinates own needs; allows others to make all decisions (more common in females)
Histronic Prev Rate
2 to 3 percent
Feature one?
No characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia (delusions, halluncinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms), though tactile or olfactory hallucinations may be present if they are related to teh person's delusions.
catatonia
immobility and marked muscular rigidy; also can refer to excitment and overactivity; ex: purposeless or repetetious movments; may assume unusual postures or remain rigid standing or sitting for longs periods of time
 
Conversion Disorder
 
 
Stress is converted into physical symptom
 
One physical problem
Preparedness
A predisposition to develop certain fears
A very non-directive treatment based on the belief that people can heal themselves if they are given the right conditions to do so.
Humanism
Adjustment Disorder
clinically significant emotional or behavioral symtoms in response to identifiable stressor causes more problems than to be expected
-if you have MDD or no other axis 1 disorder than you get adjustment disorder
-has to occur within 3mo. of stressor
-disorder goes away when you learn to cope
Comorbidity with Panic Disorder
-Percent
-Disorders
83% comorbidity
 
-anxiety disorders
-depressed mood
-substance abuse (tobacco, alcohol)
introspection
patients reported on inner thoughts after certain stimuli
Hypomania
Subclinical mania4 days of elevated moodChanges in functioning, but not impaired NOT A DSM criteria
Schizophrenia
disturbance lasting 6+ monthsat least one month of active phase (2 pos symptoms and one neg)deterioration on social, occupational, and familial functioning (at least 2)
Specific Phobia
(criteria)
- persistent, excessive or unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation with a duration of @ least 6 months.
- immediate anxious or fearful response upon exposure to the phobic object or situation.
- recognition that the fear is excessive or unreasonable, or marked distress about having the phobia.
- the phobic situation or object is avoided or is endured with intense anxiety or distress.
Unconscious
out of awareness; mental contents that can be brought to awareness only with great difficulty (or not at all)
Diagnosis
A determination that a person's problems reflect a particular disorder.
What does the DSM NOT contain?
causes
generalized anxiety disorder
chronic, pervasive low-level anxiety (GAD)
Phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
fear-stimulus hierarchy
an ordered series of increasingly fearful stimuli
Dopamine
-low number of dopamine receptors in frontal lobe can hint at Schizo
-also increased production of Schizo
 
 
Depersonalization 
 
your perception alters so that you temporarly lose the sense of your own reality
criteria b for schizo
social/occupational dysfunction: one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations is markedly below level of achieved prior to onset
Operational definition
Procedure used to measure a theoretical construct
What causes Schizophrenia?
Biological factors- differences exist in the brain structure and functioning of people with schizophrenia compared with those of others.
Heredity- there is a strong likelihood that people with schizophrenia have relatives with this disorder and the closer the relative, the greater the rate of concordance.
Environmental factors can trigger the disorder. 
 
 
 
 
grave disability
requires that people be so incapcitated with mental disorders that they cannot care for their basic needs for food, clothing, shelter.
 
used in civil commitment hearings
 
80% of involuntary commitments are commited on grounds of grave disability
Neurotransmitter
A chemical that released by one neuron, crosses the synamptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons.
Causes of dementia
Alzheimer's, Picks disease, Korsakoffs (alcoholism), tumors, metabolic imbalances - thyroid, kidney; vascular dementias - stroke/CVAs, HIV, head trauma
anatomy
field of study concerned with the study of biological structures.
Antisocial personality disorder
Disorder chatacterized by continual violation of and disregard for the rights of others through deceitful, aggressive or antisocial behavior, typically without remosrse or loyalty to anyone
Bulimia Nervosa
- Recurrent episodes of binge eating
- Recurrent and inappropriate compensatory behaviors for binge eating (purging, etc.)
- Self-evaluation excessively influenced by weight and body shape
delusions
beliefs that have no basis in reality
intrapsychic conflicts
conflicts within mind between id, superego, and ego
ACC and EDO
Monitoring conflict b/n competing responsesFailure to learn from ineffective behaviorUnderactive
Epidemiology
Study of the distribution of disorders to a population
Monoamines in the limbic system:
serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine
self-report data
data collected from the research participants themselves
Determinism
The philosophical idea that all acts are the inevitable result of what has happened before, and that human choice or free will plays no role in what happens
Vairable-Interval Ratio
reinforcement occurs after a variable interval of time.
Autonomic Nervous System
regulates functions of organs (involuntary)
transinstitutionalization
movement of people with severe mental illness from large psychiatric hospitals to smaller group residences
What type of schizophrenics engage in odd movements?
catatonic
Enuresis:
repeated bedwetting or wetting of ones clothes
Persecutory Delusions
Most common type of delusions, involve theme of being followed, harassed, conspired against, spied on attacked, etc.
behavioral features of anxiety
avoidance behavior, clinging or dependent behavior, agitated behavior
cannabis does not ...
have depencece or addictive traits
Fourth feature?
This disorder is not better accounted for by a mood disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophrenia.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
People who exhibit psychotic symptoms- delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or disorganized or catatonic behavior for at least one day, but no more than one month
Civil Commitment
a. Not criminalb. Too dangerous to selves/others to have complete freedom - prevention techniquec. Period review REQUIREDd. 2 physicians or 1 physician, 1 psychologist to do review
positive psychology
The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities.
 
Biological Model of Depression
 
MAOI's
 
Receptors that are blocked or need to be blocked
Reliability
A measure of the consistency of test or research results
Neurobiological Influences (frontal lobes and prenatal)
Individuals with schizophrenia have much less forntal activity at t rest and during a card sorting task. (hypofrontality) Possibly Viral infections during prenatal development but studies suggest structural and functional brain abnormalities are not unique to schizophrenia no strong correlation.
Requirement of MDD
-Have to have several depressive symptoms (four or five at least) for more than two weeks
behavior genetics
the study of individual differences in behavior that are caused by differencs in genotype.  Typically, it takes a combination of several altered genes to cause a disorder
Gender difference in lifetime prevalence of OCD
Women 59% lifetime prevalence
positive symptoms
refers to excess in behavior, thought, or mood such as neologisms and hallucinations
Physical/Psycho effects of Opiates
Euphoria, drowsiness, reverie, and lack of coordination, loss of inhibition, increased self-confidence
4 characteristics of stigma
Distinguishing label is applied->label refers to undesirable attributes->people with label are seen as different->people with label are discriminated against
Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders (5)
Psychological Treatments- Suppression - Covert Sensitization- Orgasmic ReconditioningDrug Treatments- Anti-Androgen- Sex Offenders
Primary Process Thinking
Wish fulfillment or fantasies, humans use to conjure up desired objects or actions; an example is a hungry infant imagining it's mothers breats when she is not present.
Secondary prevention
focuses on the early detection of emotional problems in the hope of preventing them from becoming a serious threat or difficult to treat
Currently, confirmation of a diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia depends on the results of
a. a psychodiagnostic workup
b. a CT scan
c. cognitive tests
d. a brain biopsy
d. brain biopsy
What is obsessive compulsive disorder?
persisted, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) which can cause the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action
Bipolar Disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
John had to give up his dream of becoming a surgeon because he faints at the sight of blood.
 
What phobia would this be? __________
blood-injury-injection
DPD treatment
little research but it needs to be made sure that client does not become attached to therapist
Comorbidity of Anxiety Disorders
They all go together
 
Anxiety - Depression - Substance Abuse
2 general areas of dependence
1. patterns of pathological consumption, inclucding psychological and physiological dependence 2. consequences that follow a prolonged pattern of abuse, including social & occupational impairment, legal and financial difficulties, and deteriorating medical condition
Prevalence of Transsexualism
1 in 30,000 men1 in 100,000-200,000 women
 
 
 
 
Persistence of ADHD and comorbidity

Most children (~75%) continue to show symptoms into adolescence and young adulthood
Increased risk for antisocial personality, substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, marital problems, traffic accidents, legal infractions, difficulty in sustaining employment
 
 
Causes of Eating Disorders
 
not clear if depression causes eating disorder or if eating disorder causes depression
 
more common in developed countries and white cultures (media)
 
 
corticol steriods
they help body cope with stress but suppress activity in the immune system-continous secretion weakens the immune system by disrupting production of antibodies
Medications for Schizophrenia
-First geration Anti-psychotics --Thorazine, Prolixin, Stelazine-Second Generation Anti-Psychotics --Clozaril, Respirdal, Olanzapine
Marsha Linehan Biosocial Theory for Borderline Personality Disorder
emotional dysregulation and invalidating environment
 
Emotionally Sensitive Child + Traumatic Childhood Event + A Family that does not properly nurture the child's emotional needs = an adult with Borderline Personality Disorder.
Emphasis of CBT treatment for AN
Changing maladaptive cognitions concerning:
-weight
-food
-body image
-self
Physiological effects of Marijuana
1. Bloodshot eyes2. Dry mouth/throat3. Increased appetite 4. Reduced inner eye pressure5. Increased BP6. Abnormal HR7. Lung damage
MDE Sxs in Asian cultures
Complaints of weakness and fatigue
Seasonal Affective D/O
(definition)
mood d/o involving a cycling of episodes corresponding to the seasons of the year, typically w/ depression occurring during the winter
Restricting type (anorexia nervosa)
Limits the amount of food intake
Case study
an in-depth look at the symptoms and circumstances surrounding one person's mental disturbance
13) The diathesis-stress model of abnormal behavior assumes that
genetic predisposition interacts with environment to express psychopathology.
Incidence
New cases, the number of new cases of disease occurring in a population during a defined time interval
Assertive Community Treatment in Schizo
-Team works together to meet needs
-psychiartists, nurses, social workers, vocational counselors, recreational counselors
-good outcomes
 
 
 
 
Conduct disorder
(Antisocial PD)

Conduct disorder
Truancy, vandalism, running away
Lying, acting out in school
“Homicidal triad” – firesetting, bedwetting, and cruelty to animals (early signs of murderer…all have been disproven by research except cruelty to animals)
Some people with conduct disorder do NOT grow up to be big trouble makers later, so it’s hard to differentiate.
Etiology of Anorexia: Bioregulatory
Emerges from a brain defect regarding regulation of food consumption
Adjustment disorders (5-20% outpatient diagnosed)
A maladaptive reaction to an identified stressor, characterized by impaired functioning or emotional distress that exceeds what would normally be expected. the mildest of psychological disorders have significant impairment in social, occupational, or academic functioning
Why do we use replication?
to see whether additional studies produce the same results
Sociocognitive or Cognitive-behavioral Theory on the Cause of Mood Disorders
Many theories combine these views such as Learned Helplessness- when one's prior experinvces have caused that person to view himself or herself as unable to control aspects of the future that are controllable. This belief then may result in passivity and depression.
Diathesis stress model of Schizophrenia
Genetic factors set an underlying predisposition, stress triggers onset
Bipolar II D/O
(criteria)
- presence(or history) of one or more major depressive episodes.
- presence (or history) of at least one hypomanic episode 
- no history of a full manic episode or a mixed episode
- mood symptoms are not better accounted for by schizoaffective d/o or superimposed on another d/o such as schizophrenia
- clinically significant distress or impairment of functioning.
- If left untreated it will go to Bipolar I
False Positive -
A test result that is read as positive when it is really negative.
In treating a child's fear of the dark, you would most likely use:
a. flooding
b. gradual exposure
c. modeling
d. cognitive self-control
d. cognitive self-control
What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
disordered thinking, delusions, and hallucinations
how is generalized anxiety disorder understood?
-Learning-based models focus on the generalization of anxiety across stimulus situations
-cognitive theorists seek to account for generalized anxiety in terms of faulty thoughts of beliefs that underlie worry
-biological models focus on irregularities in neurotransmitter functioning in the brain
Why might troubled family relationships increase vulnerability to eating disorders?
With bulimia families, they tend to report conflict & rejection. With anorexia families, they tend to be nonconflictual and cohesive
What are some characteristics of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?
Obsessions and compulsions that begin to interfere with every day life such as excessive hand washing, cleaning, counting, etc.
Hoarding useless items
Constantly checking things (for example, repeatedly going in the kitchen to make sure the stove is off)
Drugs used for Bipolar
Mood Stabilizers - Lithium - Anti-seizure medications - Depakote - Second generation psychotics
Causal factors of Panic Disorder: Cognitive model
-Pt is hypersensitive to bodily sensations.
- when they occur Pt is prone to giving dire interpretations to those sensations
-occurs as automatic thoughts
-increases the intensity of the bodily sensations
-leads to full PA
Mixed Manic Episode
(criteria)
- criteria are met both for a Manic Episode and Major Depressive Episode except Mixed must occur nearly every day during @ least a 1-week period.
- mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or hospitalization, or psychotic features.
Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind
by Benjamin Rush; the first American textbook on psychiatry. during the Reform Movement
16) The term “complex trait” implies that
multiple genes interact to cause a trait.
Which statement about the treatment of eating disorders is most accurate?
Family support and the patient's commitment to change are important to lasting recovery.
What factors should be taken into consideration when thinking about outcome of schizo?
Severe, progressive disorder that most often begins in adolescence and typically has a poor outcome. Best predictor of social adjustment is previous social adjustment
Although bipolar I disorder is described as "bipolar",
a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis.
why do people get treatment for SUD?
Pressure of family and friends
court mandates
overdoes or drug-induced psychosis
hitting "botton"--loss of health, marriage, employment, housing
desire for change
 
users typically feel ambivalent about trying to change
Recovery rate of depression
Approx. 1/2 w/in 6 wks. Some w/o help. Most will relapse
The best control for practice effects in an experiment is:
a. counterbalancing
b. random selection
c. double-blind
a. counterbalancing - presenting their tx in diff orders
AA have these features when it comes to eating disorders
- less body dissatisfactions, fewer weight concers, positive self image
-they think they are thinner then they are
What is the anxiety sensitivity theory?
A theory that says people with panic disorder tend to interpret cognitive and somatic manifestations of sterss and anxiety in a catastrophic manner. The theory suggests that those with panic disorder have a hypersensitive "suffocation" mechanism so that they feel as though they cannot breathe, even though others would feel nothing unusual in the same situation. This feeling causes them to hyperventilate and throws them into a state of panic.
Evidence for/against Freud's Theory of Depression (3)
1. Tend to show more anger (against)2. Triggered by stress (might support)3. High dependency=more susceptible (support)
52) Based on 30 years of research on psychological interventions for anxiety disorders, it has been found that behavioral therapy and
CBT interventions are the most efficacious treatments
What are the 4 DSM-IV_TR categories of Learning Disorders?
1. Reading disorder 2. Math disorder 3. Written expression 4. Learning Disorder NOS
According to Kagan's research on the effects of day care centers, one can say that:
there is no adverse effect of placing children over a period of time in day care centers on their cognitive abilities, adaptive functioning, or perceptual motor abilities compared to those who remain at home under their mother's care
Why has there been an increase of DID since 1980?
It has occurred in conjunction with growing public concern about child sexual abuse, a traumatic experience that has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of many dissociative disorders
As a succ licensed psycho, u r supervising your lst intern. U need to:
Inform your intern that he needs to let his clients know he is in supervision
The parents of a boy have asked u for a psycho eval of him. He has been accused of breaking into a house and the parents want the report to be sent to the judge who is to hear the case. You whould
a. aa. ask them to have their lawyer request the report
b.
b. wait until u have informed consent before doing the test and sending the report - parents should give informed consent to the eval.... should be informed of what the eval involves, what the possible consequences of releasing it to the court are, etc.
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