Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Huguenots
French Calvinists
Mazarin
French statesmen handpicked by Richelieu to be his successor.
Moliere
French classicist playwright who produced popular comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society.
Intendants. Ab.
Basically royal commissioners that were placed in each of the 32 generalites (districts). Ab.
Racine
French classicist playwright who wrote tragic dramas based on Greek and Roman legend that analyzed the power of love.
Peletier
French minister of finance who succeeded Colbert; he was forced to resort to the devaluation of currency, tax exemptions, and the sale of titles in order to pay for Louis XIV's wars.
Cromwell
English general and statesman who ruled England as a military dictator after the English Civil War.
Colbert
Louis XIV's financial minister who centralized the French economy by instituting a strict policy of mercantilism.
Locke
English philosopher who defended the Glorious Revolution by maintaining that civil governments must protect their citizens' right to life, liberty, and property.
Cervantes
Spanish novelist who wrote "Don Quixote," one of the great masterpieces of world literature which satirized 16th-century Spanish society and values.
George II
English Hanover king who appointed Robert Walpole as the first British prime minister.
Richelieu
French cardinal who whose Louis XIII's chief minister; his policies defined French absolutism.
Dragooning Ab.
A form of unpopular recruitment in which press gangs would seize men off the streets. These men were often drunks, bums, and criminals. Ab.
Cardinal Jules Mazarin
Richelieu's succesor and regent to Lousi XIV. Ab.
What language soon became very popular and widely spoken across Europe? Ab.
French. Ab.
La Salle
French explorer who sailed from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River and claimed the western United States for France.
Henry IV
French monarch who, after winning the crown in the War of the Three Henrys, attempted to reconcile French Catholics and Protestants with the Edict of Nantes.
Charles I
English king who succeeded James I; the English Civil War occurred during his reign; he was beheaded after being defeated.
The Restoration
The reestablishment of Charles II as King of England; simultaneously both houses of Parliament, the Anglican Church, and the English courts were restored.
Glorious Revolution
The overthrow of James II and accession of William and Mary by the English Parliament.
La Rochelle Ab.
Fourth largest of the French Atlantic ports and a major commercial center with strong ties to the northern Protestant states of Holland and England. Later sieged with the support of Louis XIV. Ab.
Where did Louis XIV install his royal court? Ab.
Versailles. Ab.
What is always the government's greatest expense? Ab.
Preparation for war. Ab.
Administrative Monarchy, Ab.
The French government became so strong it could achieve all its goals. Ab.
What was Spain's international absolutism based on? Ab.
Silver bullion from Peru. Ab.
Fronde
A series of civil wars in France by nobles against Louis XIV's and Mazarin's authority; they were unable to overthrow Mazarin.
Louis XIV
French king who made France a dominant power in Europe; he engaged in constant warfare and bankrupted the economy.
House of Commons
The lower house of the English Parliament and during the reigns of the Stuart monarchs, it gained more power of over finances.
English Civil War
The war between Charles I (Cavaliers) and his Parliamentary opponents (Roundheads); the Parliamentary forces won and Charles I was beheaded.
1643-1715
Years of Louis XIV reign. The peak of absolutism is France.
Describe the English economically in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Con
Capitalists. The commericial and agricultural income rose faster than prices. Con.
What caused the Fronde? Ab.
Mazarin's attempts to incease royal revenues. Taxes. Ab.
Raison d' etat Ab.
Stated that "where the interests of the state are concerned, God absolves actions which , if privatly commited, would be a crime. "Ab.
Triennial Act. Con.
Passed by the House of Commons that required the king to summon Parliament every three years. Con.
What was the difference between seventeenth century bureaucracies and the predecessors? Ab.
The seventeenth- century civil servants served the state as represented by the king. Ab.
French classicism
The art and literature of the age of Louis XIV; its subject matter was predominantly classical antiquity and the glorification of Louis XIV.
What happened after Cromwell died? Con.
Military governemt collapsed and the English longed for a return to civilian government. Con.
Why was the Glorious Revoulution democratic? Con.
Because it placed sovereignty in Parliament and Parliament represented the upper classes. Con.
Who were king and queen after James II, hsi queen, and infant son fled England and became prisoners of Louis XIV? Con.
William and Mary. Con.
How did Colbert improve communications? Ab.
He built roads and canals, most famously, the Canal des Deux Mers. Ab.
What afflicted the peasantsand caused many of them to emigrate? Ab.
Poor harvests, continuing deflation of the currency, and fluctuation in the price of grain.
French Classicism Ab.
The art and literature of the age of Louis XIV. It imitated classical antiquity that resmebled Renaissance Italy. Ab.
Trew Laws of Free Monarchy
Essay written by James I. Expresses his ideas about divine right. According to it, a monarch has a divine right to his authority and is responsible only to God. Places rebellion as the worst of political crimes because it defies God.
Treaty of Utrecht
The treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succession and forbade the combination of crowns.
Under Louvois what did the military consist of? Ab.
Soldiers instead of private nobles. Ab.
What caused the widepsread misery in France? Ab.
Royal policies, and the incessant wars. Ab.
What was the result of the skyrocketing price of wheat? Ab.
Widespread starvation, and a rising death rate. Ab.
What was to be divided between the king of France and the Holy Roman Emperor (Charles II's brother- in- law)? Ab.
The vast Spanish possessions. Ab.
What caused a civil war in England? Con.
An uprising in Ireland. Con.
When Charles ruled without a governement how was it financed? Con.
Through large stopgap levies that were considered illegal by most English people. Long Parliament. Con.
What did having a republican government mean? Con.
That the legislative power rested in the surviving members of Parliament and the executive power was in the council of state. Con.
How did William Laud impose his uniformity? Con.
Through an ecclesistical court called the "Court of High Commission" Con.
Who did Philip II hand his government to?
The Duke of Lerma. Ab.
Who succeeed Queen Elizabeth I? Con.
Her Scottish cousin James Stuart as James I. Con.
Which Estate had the greatest burden of taxation? Ab.
The Third Estate: representatives of all other people. Ab.
What are the three Estates of Burgundy? Ab.
First and Second: Clergy, and nobility. Third: Representatives of all other people-- merchants, artisans, and peasants. Ab.
In cooralation to the intendants increased
power under Richelieu, what else increased? Ab.
The power of the centralized French state. Ab.
Why did France's financial situation steadily weaken? Ab.
Entire regions of France refused to pay taxes. Ab.
What was possilby Colbert's most important work? Ab.
The creation of a powerful merchant marine to transport French goods. Ab.
Who felt that their interest were being ignored and that they were being maipulated by the Crown? Ab.
Royal burreaucrats, judges in the parlements, and intendants. Ab.
How did Colbert protect French goods?
He abolished many domestic tariffs and enacted high foreign tariffs, which prevented foreign products from competing with French ones. Ab.
Why was the period between 1649 and 1660 called the Interregnum? Con.
Because it separated two monarchical periods. Witnessed England's solitary experience of military dictatorship. Con.
What notion formed the basis of the Stuart concept of absolutism? Con.
Implying total royal jurisdiction over th liberties, persons, and properties of English men and women. Con.
Why did so many peasants leave their land causing agriculture to suffer and beggars rates to rise? Ab.
High rents and heavy taxes. Ab
What made the Glorious Revolution glorious? Con.
It replaced one king with another with mimimum bloodshed and represented the destruction of divine right monarchy. Con.
What had increased weath produced for the House of Commons? Con.
A better- educated and more articulate House of Commons. Con.
What was John Lock's main belief? Con.
That people set up civil governments to protect life, liberty, and property. Con.
What caused the War of the Spanish Succession? Ab.
Territorial disputes of the previous century and the dynasitic question of the Spanish throne. Ab.
In direct violation of the Test Act what did James do? Con.
Appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army, universitites, and local government. Con.
What encourage Louis XIV to continue to fight and invade? Ab.
His successes, the weakness of the German Empire, and the divisions among the other European powers. Ab.
What was the secret agreement between Charles and Louis XIV? Con.
Louis XIV would give Charles 200,000 pounds a year, and in return Charles would relax the laws against Catholics, gradually re- Catholicize England, support French policy against the Dutch, and convert to Catholicism himself. Con.
According to the Test Act of 1673 what could people who refused to recieve the Eucharist of the Church of England not do. Con.
Vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend universities, or assemble meeting. Con.
Why did it appear there was going to be a Catholic dynasty? Con.
Because Charles's brother and heir James, duke of York, was publicly Catholic. Con.
What was sought by each absolutist ruler? Ab.
Exaltation in him or herself as the embodiment of the state. Ab.
How did the Civil War end? Con.
With the execution of Charles on the charge of high treason. It did not resolve anything. Con.
What was the selction process for the intendants? Ab.
Chosen from the newer judicial: the noblesse de robe. Appointed directly by the monarch and could not be natives of the districts where they held authority. Ab.
Why did the House of Commons gurd the state's pocketbook from James I? Con.
Because he expressed his absolutists views proving to be a political mistake. Con.
When Charles died who got the Spanish crown and the worldwide Spanish Empire? Ab.
Philip of Anjou, Louis XIV's grandson. Ab.
How did King Louis XIV weaken the power of the nobles? Ab.
By excluding them from his councils, and occupying their time and attention with operas, fetes, balls, gossip, and trivia. Ab.
Who did the war include with Flanders and Franche- Comte include? Ab.
The Holy Roman Empire, and Spain. Ab.
What did the king really use court cremonials for? Ab.
To undermine the power of the nobility. Ab.
Where did the concilors of state come from? Ab.
Recently ennobled or the upper middle class. Ab.
What was French foreign policy like under Richelieu? Ab.
It was aimed at the destruction of the Habsburg territories that surrounded France. Ab.
How did Colbert ensure high- quality finished products? Ab.
He set up a system of state inspection and regulation. Ab.
What did Henry IV do in order to compensat for the lowered taxes on overburdened peasants? Ab.
He introduced the paulette, which was an annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices. Ab.
What combination reduced Spain to a second- rate power? Ab.
The lack of a strong middle class, the agricultural crisis and population decline, the failure to invest in productive enterprises, and the intellectual isolation. Ab.
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