Acids 9

Terms Definitions
Oleic Acid
decr [VLDL]
palmitic acid
Arachidic Acid
Stearic Acid
14:0 tetradecanoate
Myristic Acid
18:0 octadecanoate
Stearic Acid
Arachidic Acid
20 C
3 double bonds
are phospholipids amphipathic, hydrophobic, or hydrophilic
Nerconic Acid
(24:1) at C-15
covalent modifiers
-Insulin favors
-Glucagon Inhibits
20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17 (n-3)
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
20:4 Δ5,8,11,14 (n-6)
Arachidonic Acid
malonyl CoA
what inhibits carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which is the enzyme that regulates the transfer of long chain fatty acyl CoA into the mitochondria
inhibits inositol phosphatase --> inhibition of...PIP2 --> DAG or IP3 Sx: slows down PLC messenger system
Acetyl Coa favored/repressed
-Insulin Favors
-Glucagon represses
18:3 Δ9,12,15 (n-3)
alpha Linolenic Acid
trans has a higher
melting point
Palmitoleic Acid
-one of the four unsaturated fatty acid families
polyunsaturated fatty acid of omega-3 series; found in vegetable oils; lowers cholesterol
most abundant saturated fatty acid; raises cholesterol
the complete oxidation of glucose yields how many amino acids
what is accomplished by taking advantage of the detergent properties of bile salts and the mechanical mixing of intestinal contents due to peristalsis, to form emulsion droplets that are suspensions of lipid in water
the re-formed lipids and lipids synthesized de novo in the intestinal mucosal cells are secreted into the lymph as large particles call what
what binds multiple fatty acid molecules in tunnel-like sites with the methyl end of the fatty acid buried deep within each tunnel and the carboxyl end located near the surface of the protein
methylmalonyl CoA mutase
methylmalonyl-CoA undergoes an intramolecular rearrangement to form succinyl-CoA (that enters TCA cycle) by what enzyme that requires vitamin B12 as a cofactor
what enzyme converts the original 2-monoacylglycerol back to triacylglycerol using the available fatty acyl CoA derivatives. this enzyme is able to recognize fatty acyl CoAs of specific chaing lengths
The Kennedy pathway occurs in...
adipose cells.
inhibits lypolysis in adipose cells --> decr [VLDL and LDL]
introduces OH @ C7 of cholesterol...inhibition --> no bile acids (+) cholesterol (-) cholic acid
major rate controling enzyme
acetyl coa carboxylase
lingual lipase
the digestion of triacylglycerol is initiated in the stomach by what
mammals lack the enzymes to introduce double bonds beyond what carbon in fatty acids
fatty acids can cross the outer mitochondrial membrane but not the inner. what carrier is required to get the activated fatty acyl CoA transported into the inner mitochondrial membrane
during FA synthesis the acetate is transfered from acetyl CoA to the -SH group of ACP domain then the 2C fragment is transferred to a temporary holding site, -SH group of Cys residue of fatty acid synthase and the now vacant ACP accepts what 3C unit from malonyl CoA
propionyl CoA
The Beta-oxidation of a saturated fatty acid with an uneven number of carbon atoms proceeds by the same reaction steps as that of fatty acids with
an even number of carbon atoms until the final three carbons called what is reached
What is the cofactor for aminotransferases (aka transaminases)?
pyridoxal phosphate
a-Linolenic Acid
(18:3) at C-9, 12, and 15
(Type III) Apo E deficiency --> high VLDL and IDL --> high cholesterol levels (from IDL) *rare
phospholipase A2
releases fatty acyl (unsaturated) from C2 of glycerol --> lysophospholipid + FA(usually unsaturated FA) *the FA @ C2 of PC is cleaved and replaced w/ palmitoyl CoA --> DPPC (lung surfactant)
mitochondria and ER
-main sites for chain elongation
suffux ending for chain with double bonds
major-rate controlling enzyme of fatty acid synthesis
acetyl-coA carboxylase
delta nomenclature
designates the carbon atoms, numbered from the carboxyl end at which the double bonds begin
lipid bilayer membranes
what separates cells and subcellular structures into distinct compartments
mixed micelles
what do free FA, free cholesterol, 2-monoacylglycerol, and bile saltf form that are soluble in the aqueous environment of the intestinal lumen
arachidonic acid
what molecule leads to the production of prostaglandins and prostacyclins
brush border
the mixed micelles come in contact with what of the intestinal mucosal cells where they release lipid products that can enter the cells by diffusion
ketone bodies
The liver has the enzymatic capacity to divert acetyl CoA derived from fatty acid or pyruvate oxidation into WHAT that are small, soluble molecules exit the liver and are transported via the blood to peripheral tissues where they can be reconverted to acetyl CoA and then oxidized via the TCA cycle. They are used in extrahepatic
tissues in proportion to their concentration in the blood.
what is the term applied to the advanced stat of starvation and may be detected by the odor of acetone on the breath
functional molecules
by lipids acting as hormones, vitamins as cofactors, and eicosanoids this gives lipids a role as what
gastric lipase
what enzyme is produced that can hydrolyze triacylglycerol molecules containing fatty acids of short or medium chain length and is optimally active at neutral pH and therefore is little use in the adult stomach where the pH is low and is more useful in infants with a diet of breast milk abundant in short chain length TAGs
What percentage of children have a BMI over 85th%?
What percentage of adults have BMI over 30?
What percentage of adults have BMI over 25?
phospholipase C
PIP2 --> DAG or IP3 *cleavage products act as 2nd messengers
Fatty acyl coA
-end product of fatty acid synthesis
-Ex: palmityl-CoA
human system unable to introduce additional double bonds beyond the
delta 9 site
what is a fatty acid that contains no double bonds called
bile salts
what are absorbed in the ileum by acitve transport and then they also enter the portal ciruclation
HMG CoA synthase
what enzyme catalyzes the reaction of acetoacetylCoA + acetylCoA ---->HMG CoA +CoA
coenzyme A
free FA are first converted to their activated form by condensation with a molecule of what
Chylomicrons carry
TAGs from the small intestine to the liver and other tissues
acetyl CoA - ACP transacylase
acetyl CoA --> acetyl ACP
bile aid sequestrants (resins)
blocks enterohepatic uptake of bile acids --> cholesterol excreted
malonyl CoA - ACP transacylase
malonyl CoA --> malonyl ACP
unsaturated fat
at least one double bond between two carbons is present, also contains a carboxyl group at one end (C bonded to an OH, double bonded to an O, and single bonded to a C)
trans fatty acids may behave more like
saturated fatty acids
condensation, reduction, dehydration, reduction
elongation of the growing fatty acid occurs via the repetition of what 4 steps
acyl CoA dehydrogenase
what enzyme has 4 isozymes very long (20 and larger), long (16-20), medium (10-16), and short (8 and smaller)
fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (thiokinase)
what enzyme converts fatty acids to their activated CoA form with the use of CoA and ATP
acetyl CoA carboxylase
what enzyme is the committed step of fatty acid synthesis
Orexin A signals to our bodies that...
We are hungry.
Conserve energy.
beta-keto-acyl-ACP synthase (Fatty acid synthase)
acetyl ACP + malonyl ACP --> 3-keto-acyl-ACP (4 C's) + CO2
pentose phosphate pathway and malic enzyme
the NADPH for palmitate synthesis comes from where
What are three main ketone bodies and where are they produced?
1. acetoacetate
2. hyroxybuyrate
3. acetone
produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. Used to produce acetyl coA in the brain-->krebs cycle. Excess ketone bodies will decarboxylate into acetone.
TAG conversion to free fatty acids requires...
Intracellular cAMP regulated lipases (the active enzyme is phosphorylated first).
There must be a signal for the FA to be released!
oxidation, hydration, oxidation, and cleavage
what are the four steps that get repeated in Beta-oxidation
Where does the synthesis of FAs occur? the oxidation of FAs?
synthesis: in the cytosol
oxidation: mitochondria
increased synthesis by high calorie, high carbohydrate diet
what in the long term activates acetyl CoA carboxylase
TAGs are made in the....
Lipids are made in....
1. liver and adipose cells
2. all cells using the ER membrane
acyl CoA synthetase
FA + HSCoA + ATP --> fatty acyl CoA + AMP + Ppi
What is the committed step in the synthesis of cholesterol?
formation of mevalonic acid by HMG coA reductase. Requires two NADPH
Iodic Acid
Carbonic Acid
nitrous acid
sulfurous acid
nirtic acid
Nitrous acid
Acetic Acid
hydrochloric acid
Carbonic Acid
chlorous acid
Acetic acid
perchloric acid strong
7 on the pH scale
Strong Acid
Examples: hydrochloric acid, nitric acid (exlposives)
Ionize completely
acetylsalicylic acid
HOOC-C6H4-OOCCH3, used in pain relievers, fever relief, and to reduce inflamation (aspirin)
nucleic acid
A macromolecule composed of nucleotide monomers. Generally used by cells to store or transmit hereditary information. Includes ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.
Is the monomer in sugar polymers starch or glucose?
a substance that dissolves in water by creating a solution that conducts an electric current
hydroxide ion
A negatively charged ion made of oxygen and hydrogen (OH-)
What is the monomer of nucleic acids?
nucleotide (ntd)
template strand
(1) The strand of DNA that is transcribed by RNA polymerase to create RNA. (2) An original strand of RNA used to make a complementary strand of RNA.
What is an isomer?
same formula, diff structure and properties
what are 4 groups of organic compounds found in living things?
proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids.
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