ACT Biology Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nuetrophils
symbio
living together
-proto-
first, original
Botany
study of plants
Evolution
change through time
drainage network-Headwaters
-woody debris-forest cover
Malvaceae
monadelphous stamens, showy flowers
Mitochrondria
Recapture energy from respiration
which anteriory pituitary hormone stimulates thyroid gland?
TSH
Define: translocation
exchange between 2 non-homologues
Ascomycetes
sac fungisepta presentlive off decaying organic mattersexual( asci) and asexual(hyphae) reproductionEX. Penicillin
CENTROMERE
holds two sister chromosomes together
during mitosis
Gemete Cells
one set of chromosomes
ribosome
a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
cyclic aMP
Secondary chemical messenger that directs the synthesis of protein by ribosomes
Disorders that are Sex-linked
color blindness, hemophilia,
Golgi Apparatus
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
What organelles are inside animal centrosomes?
Centrioles
centrosomes are sites where protein dimers assemble into _____.
microtubules
Phylum Chordata
include hagfishes and vertebrates. Share man features of embryonic development with echinoderms.
sapwood
area in plants that surrounds heartwood and is active in fluid transport
TRUE OR FALSE; FACILITATED DIFFUSION REQUIRES ATP
FALSE
metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
domain which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria
Archaea
constant
not changing or varying; uniform; regular; invariable:
population
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
S phase
DNA replication occurs during this phase.
what levels of structure are utilized by a protein that is made of a single polypeptide chain
1,2,3
bonds are made and broken by
chemical reactions
occurrence when both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring
CODOMINANCE
Posterior Pituitary Hormones:
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin.
enzyme
a macromolecule serbing as a catalyst, a chemical agent that chages the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
The domain Eukarya includes three multicellular kingdoms
 
–Plantae
–Fungi
–Animalia
Plasma
blood consists of several kinds of cells suspended in this liquid matrix. Blood plasma is about 90% water.
formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm 
endopore
No pattern of symmetry, the simplest animals (sponges)
Asymmetry
Head
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
Carboxylic Acid
A compound containing a carboxyl group.
prophase
the first phase of mitosis, the nuclear membrane breaks down and chromosomes condense
three components of cytoskeleton?
actin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
hybrid vigor
the increase in growth, size, fecundity, function, yield, or other characters in hybrids over those of the parents.
What is semelparity?
"big bang reproduction" -- many offspring released during reproduction; mainly r-related species
Which is the first group to evolve paired appendages (fins)? (Be Specific!!)
?
Carrying Capacity
The number of organisms any habitat can support; is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of the ecosystem to recycle the residue of dead organisms through the activities of bacteria and fungi
milpighiatn tubules
used for excretion in class insecta animals
Transport Proteins
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
Describe the structure and function of fats.


Functions

Storing energy
Cushion your organs
Provide your body insulation
adenine and guanine, 2 rings in the nitrogenous base
purines
Antibody (Immunoglobulin)
Immune or protective protein evoked by the presence of foreign substances (antigens) in the body. Each antibody binds to a specific antigen in an immune response.
density-dependent inhibition
an internal signal in which crowded cells stop dividing.
Absolute Dating
Any method that enables scientists to find out how long ago an event occurred
Cell membrane structure
Composed of a phospholipid bilayer, lipid bilayer prevent polar solutes from diffusing across the membrane. (e.g. amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and ions)
Co- Transport ch.5
Might indirectly cost the cell energy
the evolution of arthropods has led to - body segments and highly specialized appendages for feeding, movement, and other functions
fewer
polymer
a compound formed from two or more polymeric compounds.
Heritable traits
characteristics that can be passed on to offspring
what type of organism might undergo "alcohol fermentation"
single celled (yeast)
Mediterranean climate (ex: CA)
land warmer than water-->moisture not dropped-->if land is cooler than ocean, moisture dropped and it rains
atomic number
the number of protons in an atom's nucleus
Strand
A structure of DNA (or RNA) formed by the covalent linkage of nucleotides in a linear manner.
Complete the sentence: The wall of the heart between the right and the left atria is the _______________
interatial septum
Why do animals play?
- playing may faciliate social development, practice certain behaviors and develop coordination and skills that may be important late during the adult life.
What is science?
1. an activity carried out under loosely agreed to rules 2.. a body of knowledge about the natural world3. a group of unifying insights about natureIt is NOT an activity that involves gathering isolated facts and observations.
What population do the repetition of artificial selection over time change the characteristics of?
A domesticate Population
insertions and deletions
add or lost nucleotide pairs in a gene
Define: stomach
-J shaped organ -can fill to capacity of 1 liter -job is to TURN FOOD, and release gastric juices
The function of the ________ is to capture sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in the form of NADPH and ATP.
light dependent reactions
The key adaptions of plants to terrestrial life
leaves, vascular tissue, roots.
The A site
it holds a tRNA molecule that is carrying it's specific amino acid
The sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because-ionizes sodium and potassium atoms-pumps hydrogen ions out of the cell-contributes to the membrane potential
contributes to the membrane potential
The Hardy-Weinberg law maintains that:
The original genetic variability of a gene pool will remain the same for generations in large, stable, randomly breeding population
Mammals have a __________ that houses the lungs and heart. It is seperated from the lower ______________ by a sheey of muscle called the ___________.
1. thoratic cavity2. abdomincal cavity3. diaphram
Mitosis results in # of what kind of daughter cells
2 diploid daughter cells
Explain how negative feedback system works
Some activity alters a condition in the internal environment.Alteration triggers a response.Response reverses the altered condition.
1.      What is the planum temporale and where is it located?
Area of the temporal cortex that for most people is larger in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere.
What is the role of chemotherapy and radiation in the control of cancer?
Radiation: Send high waves of radiation energy to stop the spreading of cancer temporarily
 
Chemotherapy: The use of chemicals to destroy cancer cells.  The only problem would be that it kills normal cells as well. 
What is the function of a endoplasmic reticulum?
It assembles lipid components of the membrane and other materials that will leave the cell.
****In marine fish is there urine [] dilute or concentrated and how is it compared to plasma?
In marine fish there urine [] is concentrated and the small amts of urine produced are isosmotic to plasma.
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