ACT Earth Science Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
habit
tendency
robert goddard
.
ionosphere
absorbs sun energy
planet has no atmosphere
mercury
north pole
90 degrees north
law of ellipses
Keplers 1st law
radiation
heat transfer through EM waves
plutonic rocks (in or ex)
intrusive
age of universe
13.7 billion years
Clastic or Non-clastic (Organic or Chemical), Conglomerate
Clastic
mineral
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
sediment
rock particles carried and deposited by water, wind, or ice
moraines
-ridges consisting of till deposited by glaciers
biggest consumer of mineral reserves
United States
fault
a crack in the earth's crust
evaporites
sedimentary rocks formed from minerals left after water evaporates
atmosphere
layres of gases that surrounds Earth
condensation
water vapor (gas) turning back into liquid
Mass Wasting
-The movement of rock, regolith, and/or soil downslope, under the direct influence.
-Controlled by Gravity
-Transfers debris down slope via gravity (ex: grand canyon)
evaporation
Occurs when water changes from a liquid to a gas.
convergent boundry
occurs when plates push together, creates reverse fault, a plate boundry where two plates move toward each other
scale
shows how to measure distance on maps
plate
A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.
competence
measures the maximum size of particles it can transport via the streams velocity
Crystal -
a homogeneous ordered solid having naturally formed faces and a limited chemical composition
plate boundaries
when plates interact with each other
wind vane
instrument used to measure wind direction
what is one revolution around sun called
Year
What is the outermost physical layer of the Earth?
Lithosphere
Sedimentary
rocks that form from small pieces of other rock or organic remains
transpiration
the water plants let out through their stomatas into indivudal water molecules
The branch of science that studies the structure and history of the universe is called what?
Cosmology
continental shelf
the relatively shallow (up to 200 meters) seabed surrounding a continent
magnetic fields
result of electrons moving in uniform motion
-source of electrons are the metals (Fe, Ni, Co) concentrated in core
-motion is result of earth's rotation
luster
a way that a mineral reflects light from its surface
organic rock
type of sedimentary rock that forms when the ramins of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers
Laccolith
a lens-shaped pluton with a round top and flat bottom. Compared to batholiths and stocks, they are relatively small
abrasion
the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
Layers of_____ found in Africa, South America, India, and Australia help to support the continental drift and hypothesis
glacial till
Copernicus
astronomer who played a major role in the development of the heliocentric theory - model accounted for why the planets seem to go backward at times because the earth is traveling faster in its orbit than other planets
dry wash
A desert valley that carries water only briefly after a rain. Called a wadi in the Middle East.
oceanography
scientific study of of the ocean using chemistry, biology, physics, geology, and other science.
spring
flow of water from the ground by heat
true north
pointing a the norther tilt of the rotation or the north pole
What prevents scientists from directly exploring Earth's interior?
It is very hot
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
comparable in size to glacier that shaped them
large scale erosion
Zone of saturation
The lower zone where water accumilates between small rock particles.
mass movement
the downhill movement of rock and soil because of gravity
Concentration of Element
This is key, the higher the concentration in a deposit the more economical it is to extract; lowers the cost, "grade" of the ore is important
factos that affect streams ability to pick up and move sediments
velocity and discharge
Native Mineral
A mineral that contains only one kind of atom and is therefore a pure element
roots
parts of a plant that grows into the ground
Salinity of the Oceans
the oceans are salty because seawater contains dissolved salts and minerals, most of the dissolved solids in seawater is common NaCl; more salt=higher density; Average salinity=3.5% (Dead Sea=30%)
atomic number
The ...is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom. Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus. For example, EVERY carbon atom has 6 protons making its atomic number 6. In other words, ALL carbon atoms and ONLY carbon atoms have 6 protons. If the atomic number was 1, the element would be Hydrogen.
cosmic background radiation
radiation left over from the big bang that fills all of space
global postioning system
is a system that uses satilites to measure the route of tectonic plate movement.
What is Earth Science?
History , changes , places on the earth
Cold
When you put an ice cube in a glass of water it becomes more what?
How do you calculate a gradient?
Change in altitude / change in distance, can be found on reference table
what is an example of active continent contient collision
northward movement of inda into eurasia
local winds are in a small area and global winds are in a large area
What is the difference between local and global winds?
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