aegean and early greek art Flashcards

Art
Terms Definitions
Dionysus
god of wine
Archaic: Euphronios, Herakles wrestling Antaios, Cerveten Italy, 510 BC (figures occupy space, red figure easier to distinguish, more depth)
Classial: Myron (artist)-Discobolos (disk thrower), 450 BC (understanding body, material)
clay with black figures
black-figure
Orientalizing: Corinthian black-figure amphora with animal friezes, Rhodes, 625-600 BC (bull, other imagery from earlier)
Heinrich Schliemann
a German businessman-turned-archeologist, who was convinced that certain Greek legends were based on historical events; he focused his search on the legends of the Trojan War and its heroes described in the works of Homer; in 1870, Schliemann found the site of Troy on the west coast of Turkey, and, in 1876, he located Mycenae in the northeast of the Peloponnese (the peninsula below the isthmus of Corinth which forms the southern part of Greece)
Archaic: Andokides (painter), Achilles & Ajax playing dice (Attic bilingual [2 sides] amphora) Orvieto, 525-520, red figure side
Geometric: dipylon krater, Athens, Greece, 740 (return of figure & art of narrative; funeral procession, in registers)
Transition Archaic to Classical: Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, 500-490 BC (Doric, columns more linear)
Archaic: Onesimos, girl (servant) preparing to bathe, Chiusi, 490 BC (red figure, inside of drinking cup)
Classical: Zeus (or Poseidon?) 460-450
Classical: Reconstruction drawing of west pediment of temple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BC; King Oinomaos- pelops (in motion)
Classical: Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) by Polykleitos (who created canon for sculpture, breaking down proportions; contrapposto)
elevation
the arrangement, proportions, and details of any vertical side or face of a building; also, an architectural drawing showing an exterior or interior wall of a building.
Mycenaean: Vapheio Cup, Sparta, Greece 1650-1450 (gold repoussé; flattened gold; narrative all the way around)
Geometric: hero and centaur (Herakles & Nessos?) 750-730 BC, bronze, short (simple, still anatomical)
Archaic: Gigantomachy (Battle of the Giants) detail from Siphnian Treasury
Transition Archaic to classical: east pediment, 490-480 BC
Transition Archaic to Classical: West pediment of temple of Aphaia (figures mirror triangular shape, hierarchical scale but not as noticeable)
Classical: Seer, east pediment of temple of Zeus, 470-456, "Severe style" (thinking)
Archaic: kroisos, from Anavysos, 530 BC (more natural)
Archaic: Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Greece 600-580 (Doric)
Minoan: Palace at Knossos, Crete, 1700-1400 BC (labyrinth)
Minoan: harvester vase, Crete, 1500 BCE (relief, expressive narrative of simple act)
lekythos
style of vase:ellipoisdal body, narrow neck, flanged mouth, single curved handel extending below the lip to shoulder, narrow base terminating at foot
hydria
style of vase:rounded shoulders, two horizontaly attached handles, vertical handle at the neck
our only vehicle to understanding Greek painting
vase painting
Archaic: Detail of the Francois vase (centaurs=progress; negative space on heads to let natural color through)
Minoan woman, La Parisienne, from the Palace at Knossos, 1450-1400 BC (cosmopolitan, large eye, in profile)
Minotaur
according to Greek legend, a monstrous creature—part man and part bull—
Cycladic civilization
civilization (c. 3000-1600 BCE) that developed on the Cyclades, a circle of islands in the southern part of the Aegean Sea; little is known about the Cycladic people because they left no written records and their origins remain obscure. Their art is one of our main sources of information about them.
kylix
style of vase: two horizonal handles set on stem that ends in foot
Minoan civilization
a distinctive culture (c. 3000-1400 BCE) that came into being on the island of Crete around 3000 BCE; its legend came from a much later legend that told of Minos, a king who ruled from the palace at Knossos. The Minoan civilization reached its peak about 1600 BCE and remained powerful until around 1450 BCE. Again, little is known about Minoan daily life because, although there are a number of written records from the period, the two earliest forms of Minoan writing continue to defy translation
shaft grave
vertical pits 20'-25' deep; those entombing rulers and their families were enclosed in a circle of standing stone slabs
terra cotta
—(a) an earthenware material made from clay fired over a low heat, with or without a glaze; (b) an object made of this material; (c) the orange-brown color typical of this medium
Archaic period
first true period of Greeks, 6th century BC
gold leaf
the paper-thin sheets of hammered gold that are used in gilding; in some cases, such as Byzantine icons, also used as grounds for paintings
pillow capital
the puffy, circular element that tops the uniquely Minoan wood columns (wide at the top and tapered at the bottom)
Sir Arthur Evans
a British archeologist who, inspired by his knowledge of later Greek myths about the pre-Greek Aegean, initiated excavations in 1900 (CE) that were to establish the historical basis of the myths. He discovered the buried ruins of the extraordinary palace complex at Knossos, on Crete's north coast and spent the rest of his life excavating and reconstructing the buildings he had found
amphora
style of vase:oval body that tapers to base, two cureved handles extending below lip to shoulder
oinoche
style of vase:in form of a one-handled wine jug with round mouth and curved handle
Thera
the modern island of Santorini in the southern Cyclades; a volcanic island, whose ashes covered a lost civilization, discovered in 1967 by Greek archeologist, Spyridon Marinatos. Thera supported a flourishing civilization with considerable interest in the arts. Thera is considered by some scholars to be the lost city of Atlantis, mentioned by Plato in 4th century BCE Athens; the precise role of Thera in the Minoan era still remains to be determined
Vault of the Tholos of the Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 1300-1250 (a little more advanced, curved stones w/ smaller stones)
citadel
an area of a fortress or a defended city placed in a high, commanding spot
rhyton
a vessel in the shape of a figure or an animal, used for drinking or pouring liquids on special occasions (e.g., religious rituals)
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