Aegean/early Greek Art Flashcards

Art
Terms Definitions
Athena
patroness of Athens
Aphrodite
goddess of love
Orientalizing: Mantiklos Apollo statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo from Thebes (broad shoulders, narrow waist, hair like pharaoh's, eyes)
niello
a black metallic alloy
Archaic: Euphronios (painter) & Euxitheos (potter)- Death of Sarphedon, 515 BC, red figure
Minoan: woman figure, Cyclades, 2500-2200 (geometric, symmetric, death figure)
Archaic: Euthymides, three revelers, Vulci, 510 BC, red figure (figures in 3/4 view=foreshortened; signed "Euthymides painted me as never Euphronios could do"
Classical: warrior, 460-450 BC (lifesize, contrapposto)
Classical: metopes of Athena, Herakles, Atlas-temple of Zeus 470-456
Minoan: bull leaping fresco, 1500-1450, palace at Knossos (women are white, men are dark, animal is large & fluid, framed, in a register)
Minoan: landscape, spring fresco, Akotiri, Thera Cyclades 1630-1500 (unnatural, stylized)
chryselephantine
fashioned of gold and ivory
Near East & Egyptian influences
Orientalizing period
Zeus + Hera
main Greek gods (2)
Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 1300-1250 (post & lintel, corbelling)
Transition Archaic to Classical: Dying warrior, west pediment, 500-490 BC (archaic smile, body more dynamic, legs uncomfy position)
Classical: Charioteer, 470 BC (relaxed feet, breakthrough)
Classical: Kritios Boy, 480 BC, CONTRAPPOSTO (counter positioning=shifting weight to one side)
Archaic: Exekias, Achilles & Ajax (Attic black figure amphora) Vula, Italy, 540-530 (playing a game of chess before battle)
Archaic: peplos (simple garment) kore (young girl) from Acropolis, 530 BC (left arm extended=break w/ side arm tradition; women clothed, not men)
Archaic: Temple of Hera ("Basilica") Paestum, Italy, 550 BCE (example of early Doric [wide&stocky, gets narrow])
Archaic: smiling calf bearer, Athens, Greece 560 BCE, "archaic smile" introduced here, dedicated to Athena by Rhonbos, Rhonbos offering calf to Athena (arms + calf legs=X for balance, proportion, lightly clothed)
Mycenaean: Lion Gate, 1300-1250 (post & lintel, corbelled arch, lion=power, on top)
relieving triangle
in Mycenaean architecture, the triangular opening above the lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by the lintel itself.
faïence
a glazing technique for ceramic vessels, utilizing a glass paste that, upon firing, acquires a lustrous shine and smooth texture; also, earthenware or pottery decorated with brightly colored glazes
cyclopean construction
stone construction using large, irregular blocks without mortar; also, any large-scale monumental building project that impresses by sheer size (based on Greek myths of giants of legendary strength)
Minoan: remnants of Palace at Knossos, columns=wider on top, thinner on bottom, fresco
Minoan: Octopus jar, Crete, 1500 bce (function+form+imagery; octopus' arms circular like jar)
ashlar masonry
carefully cut and regularly shaped blocks of stone used in construction, fitted together without mortar.
Spyridon Marinatos
a Greek archeologist, who, convinced that the volcanic on the modern island of Santorini (formerly called Thera) covered a lost civilization, began in 1967 to excavate near the modern town of Akrotiri and discovered exciting new archeological evidence of a flourishing civilization with a well-developed artistic tradition
labyrinth
in later Greek legend, the Knossos palace was called the Labyrinth, meaning the House of the Double Axes (Greek labrys, "double ax"), because double-ax motifs were used in its architectural decoration. However, because of the dauntingly complex layout of the palace complex at Knossos, the word has come to mean a maze
dromos
the passage leading to a tholos tomb
corbelled arch
an arch-like construction method in which masonry courses are corbelled, with each course projecting further out from the course below it, until they meet at the top to span a space or void in a structure
granulation
a decorative technique in which tiny metal balls are fused to a metal surface
3 orders of Greek archiecture
doric, ionic, corinthian
buon fresco
a technique of painting in which pigments are applied to a surface of wet plaster, so that the pigments become fused with the plaster as it dries (also called just fresco)
repoussé
a technique by which metal reliefs are created; thin sheets of metal are gently hammered from the back to create a protruding image. (More elaborate reliefs are created with wooden forms against which the metal sheets are pressed.)
first Greek period of art, 8th century BCE, after dark age
geometric period
neck amphora
style of vase:oval body that tapers to base, two cureved handles extending on shoulders
2 types of early vase painting
red figure and black figure
krater and three kinds
style of vase:wide mouth, two handles and a foot for mixing wine. volute krater, bell krater, calyx krater
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