African American History 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
John Phillip- Where?
Jamestown, Virginia
Crispus Attucks- When?
Colonial Era- 1750
separation or discrimination of parts
student version of SCLC, led sit-ins
process of preparing newly arrived slaves for the discipline of slavery and the realization that they were no longer free
Executed without hesitation, had no demands, did not ask for a judge or lawyer and craved no mercy. This enraged the whites and facilitated the process of convicting him.
What president endorsed and developed the "Philadelphia Plan," on which most affirmative action programs were based?
Mob attacks on blacks, ececution without the due process of the law. Blacks were hanged by mobs of whites.
14th amendment
amendment which allowed freed slaves to become citizens
when and where was MLK assassinated?
1968, memphis
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
He tried the suspected conspirators of the New York fires in 1741.
The name of King's assailant?
James Earl Ray
to mentally resist something subtle or obvious
Underground Railroad
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
James Meredith
black student who integrated Ole Miss (university in MI)
Phillis Wheatley
only African American woman to publish a book during the revolutionary times
what was harriet tubman responsible for?
the underground railroad
Affirmative Action 1965
1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson issued executive order 11246 that required federal contractors and other employements to hire without regard to race, religion and national origin. 1968 gender was added to the anti-discrimination list
Middle Passage-When?
Pre-colonial, begins in 1482 and ends in 1808
W.E.B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
Eli Whitney
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
African slave trade
Within Africa, slaves were used primarily for agricultural purposes. It was more of an indentured servitude, as their slave status could be broken with money or social promotion. Europeans and Americans took note and soon began following suit.
Booker T. Washington
He was an African-American educator and author. He was the President of the Tuskegee University, and he was a believer of gradualism.
Brown vs. Board
Court case which ended segregation in schools because of Linda Brown having to go to a bad school because she was black (1954). Lawyer: Thurgood Marshall
colored farmers alliance
started because they couldn't be a part of the all with southern alliance, More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
First to die in Rumor of Revolt after being accused of conspiracy in the fires of 1741 in New York City. He was the baker John Vaark's slave
Abiel Smith School
An all black school that was under-funded and overlooked by the public school board. It was formed to replace the school in the basement of the African meetinghouse. The inequality in education of blacks sparked a revolution that eventually led to the desegregation of all schools at a much later point in history.
Myth 4
“About the latter end of August [of 1619], a Dutch man of war ... brought not anything but 20 odd Negroes which the Governor and Capt. Merchant brought for victualle [food].|”
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence
Madam c.j Walker
an African American woman who owned a bank and who spearheaded health and education reforms during the guilded age, An African-American who began selling beauty products door-to-door, and later by mail. She opened beauty schools, taught her salespeople how to kindly treat the customer. She became one of the wealthiest, most successful women of her time.
Caesar- Why?
Caesar was the first to die and began the investigation into the suspected conspiracy surrounding arson. He was well known around the city for breaking custom and law, and is proof of how a black man during this era could be accused of crime and executed solely based on skin color and demeanor.
What was king's position on the draft?
he advocated draft resistence
Marcus Garvey
He was a Jamaican who moved to the United States in 1916. He created the UNIA for the U.S. during the Postwar cultural discontent. He continued on the line of Black Nationalism.
what was the "little rock nine"?
nine black students were integrated into a white school in Arkansas
How did blacks feel about Clinton?
They warmly welcomed his candidacy against Bush, and felt that he was the best president since Lyndon Johnson regarding black rights.
Grange and The Colored Farmers’ Alliance
“This organization is for the purpose of trying to elevate our race, to make us better citizens, better husbands, better fathers and sons, to educate ourselves so that we may be able to vote more intelligently on questions that are of vital importance to our people.”
what did the 15th amendment do?
gave african men the right to vote
What seems to have sparked the inner-city rebellions? What happens in Watt in the summer of 1965? What happens in Newark and Detroit?
Sparked b/c of substandard housing, crime, lack of jobs, poor school system (a lot of dropouts). Watts: a policeman pulled black boy over for DUI crowd gathered and pelted police w/debris...riot began and national guards were called. Newark: cab driver in custody was beaten by police protestors gathered and threw a firebomb at the station...rioting ensued. Detroit: police raided after hours joint and rioting ensued afterwards.
John J. Smith House
Born free in Richmond, VA, he moved to Boston at the age of 28. He became a barber and his shop served as a haven for fugitive slaves. During the civil war, he was a recruiter for the black cavalry unit. He was then elected to the House of Representatives and settled in this home.
LAW: Against the law to read or write
Can't write to pass freedom
what did the civil rights act of 1964 do?
outlawed discrimination in voting, hotels, theaters, restaurants, encourages the integration of schools and outlawed state and municipal governments from discrimination in their services (14th)
Give the details of Executive Order 8802.
The Executive Order 8802 stated that there could no longer be any discrimination in the employment of workers because of race, creed, color or national origin. Blacks were overjoyed when this Order was done but then started to realize that some companies may hire people as mere tokens to appear that there isn't any discrimination in the workplace.Roosevelt and later Truman used the office of president to begin chipping away at racism. The EFPC was a step in that direction. Many things can often be done by executive order that might not make it through legislation. Roosevelt did this.
what did Marcus Garvey say about black nationalism?
whites and blacks would never get along in this country
Give the details of the Black Panther Party.
created by Huey P Newton&Bobby Seale in Oakland in 1966. They hoped the party could overthrow the capitalist society and police brutality. Cleaver was the minister of education that put together the partys ideology.
LAW: Slavery and Baptism in Christian Religion
Even a christian can be a slave. Slavery is not a problem under God
What was going on in the black religious culture?
During the 1930's and 1940's the two prominent alternative religious groups were Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam and Father Divine's Peace Mission Movement. The Nation's teachings incorporated a mixture of the Koran, the Christian Bible, his ideas, and of Marcus Garvey's. During WWII its members refused to serve in the military and Muhammad was jailed. The Nation also taught that blacks were the true Muslims and the original human and white were created by a magician then later banished to Europe.
Although the Nation of Islam appealed to blacks, Father Divine's Peace Mission Movement appealed to both black and white "poor and needy urbanites." And just like Muhammad Father Divine was also jailed, and because the judge died of a heart attack he gained recognition as a master of cosmic forces. The Movement was centered on ending racial prejudice and becoming politically engaged. Later, Father Divine and the Peace Mission Movement relocated to Harlem and launched New Days and bought property to provide shelter, jobs, and income for followers.
What was happening in St. Louis in the 30s and 40s?
A lot of black people migrated to St. Louis. It then was the 5th largest city in America at the time. It was heavy in racism at the time and was heavily segregated. Black people had to develop their own schools and cultural needs. Classical music was big in St. Louis but black students could rarely get training in this type of music except @Lincoln U&Sumner HS. On page 511 there is a writing from Langston Hughes that outlined some of the accomplishments and opportunities that black people had in St. Louis.
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