|National Baptist convention||
Richard Wright&#039;s Native Son became a Book-of-the-Month Club selection.
This made Wright the first African American writer to receive both critical acclaim and commercial success simultaneously.
The American Negro Theater (1940) - an experimental theater in Harlem.
Margaret Walker won the Yale Younger Poets Award for For My People (1942).
Gwendolyn Brooks won the Pulitzer Prize for Annie Allen (1950).
Ralph Ellison won the National Book Award for Invisible Man (1952).
Lorraine Hansberry won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Raisin in the Sun (1959).
(Richard Wright is given the credit is often given the credit for paving the way for the writers of this period.)
|Crispus Attucks- What?||
Escaped from Master
an African-American motorist driver who, in 1991 was stopped and then beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers
|who led the Southern Christian Leadership Conference?||
abolished slavery in the U.S.
|[Slavery is an economic system]||
american abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became the leading african american spokesperson and writer
died off in large numbers from diseases bought by Europeans
group of blacks that migrated to Kansas during the 1880 and established Black towns
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave; it was a way to protest in a nonviolent way
West African kidnapped with his sister and worked as a domestic slave at the coast. He was later sent to Virginia as part of the slave trade.
|Give the details of the Montgomery boycott. Who were the "friends in the North" during the boycott? What brought about victory in the boycott?||
|What is Stokely Carmichael second name?||
Needham Roberts and Henry Johnson given French highest medal of honor. An African-American infantry that earned the French Cross medal for serving on the front line in France for 191 days under fire. They weren't recognized by the United States.
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
|Nation of Islam||
Group that believed in black supremacy; wanted to create a separate black republic and not serve the U.S gov. Creator: Wallace D. Ford, recruited people in jails to be members
in 1780, all black children born here had to be free by 28 years old
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
|National Negro Business League||
Organized by Washington; established 320 chapters across the country to support businesses owned and operated by African Americans. Created as an effort to inspire the "commercial, agricultural, educational, and industrial advancement" of African Americans.
United States civil rights leader who led a national anti-discrimination campaign and ran for presidential nomination (born in 1941)
Route was through the Atlantic Ocean- Europe, West Africa, and New World
|Booker T. Washington||
Help founded NAACP, thought African American should focus on economic change over political change
|What is Freedom sunday?||
king initiates-campaign to make chicago an open city-
demanding an end to discrimination in housing, employment and schools.
a 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws
|The Barbadoes Connection||
model of plantation slavery from the begining (1670)
|King stated that he had 3 main objectives in chicago. What are they?||
2.) Force lanlords by organizing slum-dwellers
3.)change dwellers into non-violent demostrators
|British Gain Control of Slave Centers||
1640s-1700s- Slavery becomes institution
|Henry "Box" Brown||
moved to Great Britain to avoid being captured into slavery again
|Mary Church Terrell||
Daughter of two former slaves, was one of the first African-American women to earn a college degree. She became an activist who led several important associations and helped to work for civil rights and suffrage. Helped found the National Association of Colored Women, fought for the equal rights for the blacks, her father was a former slave but became a millionaire, in 1953, she led a committee that won a suit to end discrimination in Washington hotels, restaurants, buses, and other public facilities. Helped found the National Association of Colored Women
|Brown v Board of Education||
Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessey v Ferguson; lead to the desegration of schools in 1954
|E. H. Carr||
“The belief in a hard core of historical facts existing objectively and independently of the interpretation of the historian is a preposterous fallacy, but one which it is very hard to eradicate” (12).
|Encyclopedia Britannica publishes the following concerning the Euphrates||
Turkish Firat Nehri , Arabic Nahr al-Furat river, Middle East. The longest river in Southwest Asia, it is one of the two main constituents of the Tigris-Euphrates river system. The river rises in Turkey and flows southeast across Syria and through Iraq. Formed by the confluence of the Karasu and the Murat rivers in the high Armenian plateau, the Euphrates descends between major ranges of the Taurus Mountains to the Syrian plateau. It then flows through western and central Iraq to unite with the Tigris River and continues, as Shatt al-Arab, to the Persian Gulf. In all, it is 1,740 miles (2,800 km) long. Its valley was heavily irrigated in ancient times, and many great cities, some of whose ruins remain, lined its banks. With the Tigris, it defines an area known historically as Mesopotamia [Mesopotamia is widely considered the cradle of civilization].
|why did africans come to america?||
slaves are needed for sugar plantations in the west indies
|Describe the events of the Orangeburg Massacre.||
Orangeburg Massacre was @South Carolina State College on February 8th 1968. It began when students protested the local bowling alley's "white-only admissions" policy. As the protest began to intensify state officials summoned highway patrol and the National Guards to the scene. On the evening of the 8th students gathered in front of the campus and jeered at the police, some even throwing rocks. One of the officers was struck by some of the debris being thrown and this incited 9 patrolmen to open fire on the students. 3 students were killed and 28were wounded, mostly in the back. Later all of the officers were acquitted of the charges and Cleveland Sellers, a SNCC leader, was convicted of rioting and served almost a year in jail. Dr. Cleveland Sellers was pardoned in 1993 and South Carolina governor James Hodges gave a formal apology on February 8th 2001 to the protestors.
|Overtime slavery is institutionalized with laws...||
laws were necessary to define africans as slaves
|Fugitive Slave Act||
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
|What was the African American response to the growing world crisis?||
Italians invaded Ethiopia an blacks gave money, doctors went over to help, and people rallied. The italians ended up winning but it alerted black to the dangers of fascism and black identified more with Africa.
|What book does Stokely and Carmicheal and charles V. Hamilton Publish in 1967?||
Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in American.
|Meaning of "THE NEGRO SPEAKS OF RIVERS"||
Perhaps the metaphor of the river signifies fluidity...something that is metamorphic, changing its physical shape throughout time. Thus, the poem may imply that its narrator has connected to a spirit that is ancient, older than mankind.
The poem may also mean that the river symbolizes the linkage of all human life from the earliest time to the present. Or that these particular rivers link Africans from the Euphrates to the Mississippi.
The poem also symbolically speaks to the soul of the black man. The spirit and soul of the black man is deep and ancient like the Euphrates River.
|what was the slavery in the upper south like?||
the climate was better, the plantations were less scattered, natural reproduction and tobacco was less physically demanding
|What occurred in Boston when a judge ordered several schools to desegregate by busing students to different areas?||
White parents and students rioted against police, with much racial violence continuing.
|How was king's relationship with SNCC?||
SNCC had a dislike for middle class values which king stood as an example of.
|What was the situation for blacks in the Carter administration? What were Carter's domestic policies?||
In 1976, Jimmy Carter became president of the United States of America with the help of 90% of all African American votes. Carter realized that without African American support, he would not have won the election. Therefore, he demonstrated thankfulness by appointing black officials to important offices. Patricia Harris was appointed secretary of housing, Andrew Young ambassador to the United Nations, Wade McCree soliciter general in the department of Justice, and many African Americans to other powerful and influential offices. For the first time in history, a president was elected who African Americans favored. And for the first time in history, many black officials were able to work in important and influential offices.
But overall, Carter was a disappointment to African Americans. He failed to ensure employment or health care, and cut social welfare programs that affected school lunch programs and financial aid for African American students. African Americans felt that he had achieved little in terms of social justice and economic advancement.
|what is meant by the time of reconstruction?||
a time when the federal government is trying to get everyone back into the union
|What was the situation on the Eve of World War II?||
The axis was created which contained fascist dictators. They were trying to take over everything.
mixing of races
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
African-American actress, singer, opera performer, first black women to star in major motion picture; she moved to France
Black nationalist; disagreed with nonviolent resistence as a way to win rights for African Americans, he advocated for violent resistence
-1878 Galvaston, TX
-first black heavy weight champ of the world
-convicted of violating the Mann Act for transporting a white woman across state lines for immoral purposes (marriage)
-fled from 1 yr prison sentence and $1000 to Canada to France
-returned to states, served 10 months in prison
1940s&50s; black jazz musician invented bebop, rejecting white expectations for black music; challenged traditions, spontaneous, FREE; inspired challenging of authority and encouraged people to stand up for civil rights
|Only britans can export slaves increased access to captives||
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor
|Meaning of "sweat"||
Patience and justice prevails.
One reaps what one sows.
Moral correctness in the face of evil.
Narrative tension between good and evil.
Hurston's comment concerning domestic abuse.
Articulating rage through a woman's silence
The meaning of a woman finding voice
|Plessey v. Ferguson||
-1891 Louisanna legistlature required segregated trains within state
-test cast, blacks challenged
-1982 Homer Plessy 1/8th black bought first class ticket, violated new law
-1896 Separate but Equal Clause
Colonial Era, 1702 in North America and 1703 in West Indies
an African American leader, ex-slave, abolitionist, businessman, Republican Party worker and a representative from Boston to the Massachusetts state legislature. Financed his own escape from slavery and participated in many anti-slavery efforts once he was free.
the freeing of a slave by master
A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"
woman from Chicago, part of Freedom Riders, led sit-in movements
|Talking Books: Introduction||
African American sought to write themselves out of slavery by mastering Anglo-American tradition of letters: Those writings that are valued for their elegance and aesthetic qualities (rather than human interest or moral instruction). Belles-lettres (xxxvii)
Tha Anglo-African literary tradition was created two centuries ago in order to demonstrate that persons of African descent possessed the requisite degrees of reason and wit to create literature...; they could write (xxxviii).
Texts that talk black and talk back: engaging the racial divide (xxxviii).
Trope of the talking book is a double-voiced text that talks to other texts. It talked back to those texts of the dominant community to demonstrate that the African had the ability to talk texts as well.
The term talking book was gleaned from James Gronniosaw's autobiography when in it he saw his master moving his lips when reading; at that time he thought that the book talked to the master. And when Gronniosaw himself went to place his ear on the texts to listen to what the book had to say; the text did not talk to him. Thus comes the metaphor of the dominant texts's refusal to speak to or talk to the black person.
18th century Europeans measured the African's humanity and capacity for progress via their ability to write (xl). (This premise ignores the fact that many of the African slaves had their own form of writing; particularly the Muslims who read and wrote in Arabic...those narratives are now being interpreted and evaluated by scholars.)
Idea held by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should cooperate with Southern whites and should not push for political and social equality, but instead should try to make economic gains primarily through vocational training
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement
United States prizefighter who won the world heavyweight championship three times (born in 1942); became know as Muhammad Ali when he converted to Nation of Islam
John Phillip testified against a white man in court.
The primary river of northern Africa. In ancient times, it was used for trading goods between African civilizations. During the slave trade period, nearly half of the total slaves exported from Africa came from the Niger delta. This became known as the "slave coast".
the view that imports are bad and exports are good
|Boynton vs. VA||
Court case in 1960 which banned segregated places in bus stations
|what is 'The Liberator'?||
a newspaper written by W.L Garrison
|What were President Johnson's programs? What was the opposition to his programs?||
The Economic Opportunity Act administered programs like HeadStart& UpwardBound. Greater Society. Another program, the New Careers, enabled people in low-income communities to obtain jobs such as day care workers, teacher aides and community organizers. These jobs provided resources and skills which allowed African-Americans to be a part of the working community. Community Action Programs were created to enhance the education in poor communities. With this in mind, The Education Act was created to increase federal funding to colleges and universities and to provide low-income student loans. Many black men and women served on the boards of these programs and learned bargaining and organizing skills. Many politicians opposed Johnson's programs because they felt they were empowering a race that was previously disfranchised. Others felt that he was providing handouts to unworthy African-Americans because they were lazy and unruly.
The first piece of legislation to publicly deny the right of secession to individual states. Its approval meant that the principle of secession was no longer in keeping with the idea of a national union.
|As warfare increased...||
Europeans able to gain control over slave trade.
-given access to slaves
-people become cheaper
-life exp. goes ^
|what did sojourner truth do?||
she traveled throughout the north promoting abolition
|Klu Klux Klan||
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence
Samuel Cornish and John Rusworm
Two writers who published an antislavery magazine.
Freedom's journal the first African-American newspaper published in the United States (N.Y.)
|Women and children kept separate in barracks||
Separation allowed disorientation, suppression of fear, no communication
|what did the NAACP do?||
it was formed to combat white violence
|Martin Luther King, Jr.||
On January 3, 1964, who did Time magazine name as the first African American "Man of the Year"?
|Where did the King family move at in Chicago?||
Lawndale slum tenement
|what was the name of the trip from the west coast of africa to america?||
the middle passage
|Why did COFO recruit northern white students to help with Freedom Summer?||
Because they thought the white students would give the project more media attention.
|[europeans set out to discover gold ivory and ultimately slaves. Slaves were not intentional no conscious effort]||
[slave trade controlled by different europeans at different times]
|what was hayes and tildens compromise?||
that hayes would be president if the federal government would end reconstruction and allow the south to do what they want
|What was the situation with black conservatives? Describe the Thomas-Hill controversy.||
In 1991, the role of black conservatives was brought to the forefront during the Thomas-Hill controversy. Clarence Thomas who had presided as an appellate court judge for fifteen months was nominated by President George H.W. Bush to sit on the Supreme Court. During his confirmation process the Senate Judiciary Committee heard testimony from Anita Hill saying Thomas sexually harassed her while working for him at the EEOC. Despite her testimony Clarence Thomas was still confirmed to the Court.
Black conservatives were middle class professionals and politicians who gained distinction during the Reagan years. Thomas Sowell, Walter Williams, Shelby Steele, Armstrong Williams and Ward Connerly were prominent black conservatives during that time.These black Republicans were not known to exercise power within their party; they simply embraced the goals of the white party leaders. On the other hand, black Democrats were extremely vocal, always lobbying for their rights. In 2008, the Republican Party nominated Michael Steel as the chair for the Republican National Committee to create ethnic inclusion within the party.
|As slaves live earlier and healthier...||
Fertility goes up, and slaves are able to have more children, cause more dependence on slave law
|What was the struggle of black women to desegregate the military?||
Despite the fact that women nurses volunteered during WWII the army had quotas and would not admit them and few served. Many times the nurses were understaffed and serving the enemy.
|What what are the Deacons of Defense?||
Established in 1961, they are a group of armed self defense organization which defended and protected civil rights workers.
|What was happening in the area of prisoners' rights?||
Many blacks were in jail b/c of politics&were treated horribly...more 50% of black made up prison system in 1970. Angela Davis was an activist she was on the FBI's 10 most wanted list. She was involved in the Soledad Brothers case..which resulted in a shoot out that she supposedly helped with raid
|Give the details of the Brown v. the Board of Education Case. What did Brown II address? What were the results?||
Oliver Brown filed a suit b/c his daughter was not allowed to go to the summer school closest to her which was a white school.Brown II described the process to desegregation.