Agriculture 6 Flashcards

Agriculture
Terms Definitions
Agribusiness
Agribusiness-commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually though ownership by large corporations
Hull
the outer-covering of rice
Subsistence agriculture
Subsistence agriculture- agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family
Desertification
Desertification- degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
Transhumance
Transhumance- the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Vegetative planting
Vegetative planting- reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
Seed agriculture
Seed agriculture- reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization
Horticulture
growth of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
What continent benefitted the least from the Green Revolution?
Africa
Crop rotation
Crop rotation- the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Chaff
Chaff- husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
Pastoral nomadism
Pastoral nomadism- a form of subsistence agriculture based on heading domesticated animals
Paddy
Paddy- Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a Sawah
Intensive subsistence agriculture
Intensive subsistence agriculture- a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Plantation
Plantation- a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Ridge tillage
Ridge tillage- system of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Green revolution
Green revolution- rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Grain
the seed from various grasses, like wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet, and others
Combine
a machine that performs in one operation the tasks of reaping, threshing, and cleaning
Due to overgrazing, what are semiarid lands subject to?
desertification
What type of agriculture exists in Southern Europe, North Africa, California, Central Chile and Southwestern South Africa?
Mediterranean
Winnow
Winnow- to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
Spring wheat
Spring wheat- wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Prime agricultural land
Prime agricultural land- the most productive farmland
Reaper
machine that cuts grain standing in a field
Grain Farming
Midwest U.S. and Canada, Spring Wheat and Winter wheat, needs extensive technology
Dairy Farming
In Northwest US and Northwest Europe. Located near urban areas because of spoilage (Milk shed) - the farther from an urban area, the less milk a farm produces and focuses on other dairy products. Farms located farther from urban areas most likely to use dairy to make butter, cheese, or dried, evaporated, or condensed milk, sell milk to wholesalers, labor intensive, have to feed cows in winter, when they can't graze
What was the rapid invention and diffusion of more productive agriculure practices in the 1960's and 70's called?
Green Revolution
In Europe, what method did farmers emply to maintain soil fertility?
crop rotation
Who came up with the ideas of cultivations beginnings and has had a heavy hand in human geographical agricultural theory?
Carl Sauer
Wet Rice
practice of planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth
Intensive Substance Agriculture
must be intensively worked to produce to attain food from the land to survive on, in primarily Southwest Asia, in wet climate - rice, in dry climates - other crops
What is the practice of growing crops of ridgetops called?
ridge tillage
Before the invention of agriculture, how did people provide for themselves?
by hunting and gathering
According to the Von Thumen model, how is the third ring used?
crop rotation
Slash and Burn Agriculture
when farmers clear land for planning by slashing vegetation and burning the debris
What are the four types of agricultural regions for LDCs?
Shifting Cultivation, Pastoral Nomadism, Intensive Subsistence Agriculture,
What two economic factors influence commercial farmers?
Access to markets and overproduction
What factors contribute to animal selection for pastoral nomads?
local cultural and physical characteristics
Name 3 crops commonly associated with Mediterranean agriculture.
olives, grapes, fruits vegetables
What three areas is intensive agriculture practiced the most?
East, South and Southeast Asia
What is the term of cultivation of 2 crops per year?
double cropping
For pastoral nomads, what determines the amount of the power and prestige?
the size of their herd
What are challenges for substance farmers?
Population increases faster than food production can keep up, and they lack the money to purchase equipment from MDCs that would increase food production
What 2 crops are grown the most in mixed crop and livestock agriculture regions?
corn adn soybeans
What type of farming produces the products demanded by consumers in MDC's?
truck farming / commercial gardening
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
France to Russia, US West of the appalachians, Wet Crop and rotation systems (to maintain fertility of fields), corn is the most used and most profitable, a lot of produce is fed to animals and not consumed by humans
What are examples of farmers moving to sustainable agriculture? And why are they doing so?
Organic farming, sensitive land management, and limited use of chemicals, done because of the growing popularity of protecting the environment
Name 2 areas where hunter and gatherers still live.
Arctic, interior of Africa and interior of Australia
Agriculture, or farming, is a primary industry.
Farmers cultivate crops and rear animals to produce food and other products.
Is affected by many of the same issues as any other industry.
Large commercial farms - small subsistence farms.
All work to su
Inputs - physical (sun, rain, land), Human (labour), Capital (money for livestock, feed, wages, equipment)
Processes - activities that turn inputs to outputs. E.g. planting and caring for crops)
Outputs - The products that the farmer sells, or uses. E.g wheat, meat, wool etc.
To make a profit, the costs of the input must be less then the money made from the output.
What are the five differences between subsistence and commericial agriculture?
The purpose of farming (either for profit or survival), the percentage of farmers it involves in the labor force, the use of machinery, Farm Size and the relationship of farming to other businesses
In general why do commercial farmers suffer low incomes?
They produce more food than is demanded by MDC's.
What are some ways of increasing the food supply?
Expanding the amount of land used (though it can be environmentally detrimental), higher productivity (via the use of new technology and the green revolution) and indentifying new found resources
What are 2 hallmarks of slash and burn agriculture?
shifting cultivation, fields only used a couple of years, fields are slashed and then burned
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