All AP Psychology Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
somnambulism
sleep walking
Wilhelm Wundt
father of psychology
herman ebbinghaus
earliest memory studies
Hobson & McCarley
sleep/dreams/consciousness; pioneers of Activation-Synthesis Theory of dreams; sleep studies that indicate the brain creates dream states, not information processing or Freudian interpretations
teratogen
Substance that can produce developmental malformations (birth defects) during the prenatal period
culture
behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions transmitted from one generation to the next within a group of people who share a common language and environment
Standardization
Defining meaningful scores b comparison with the performance of a pre-tested standardization group.
biofeedback
operant conditioning technique of using monitoring devices to furnish information regarding an autonomic bodily function, such as heart rate or blood pressure, in an attempt to gain some voluntary control over that function. used for treatment of stress and anxiety
Continuity
we perceive smooth, continuous patterns
Top-Down Processing
begin with expectation, recognize whole patterns, before analyzing component parts (concept/hypothesis driven).
Superstitious Behavior
Behavior learned through coincidental association with reinforcement
clinical
this type of psychologist studies, assesses and treats those with psychological disorders
Neural Networks
interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
Storage
The process by which encoded information is maintained over time.
compliance
modification of our behavior at another person's request
positive symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.
Obedience
following the directions of another because that person is an authority figure
Dissociative fugue
a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality and other identifying characteristics of individuality. The state usually short-lived (hours to days), but can last months or longer.
Gestalt Therapy
therapy where therapist use role-playing exercises to help clients integrate their inner feelings into their conscious experience
acuity
the sharpness of vision. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 206)
changing an existing schema to incorporate new information that cannot be assimilated
accommodation
Frequency
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point
action potential
the electrical process by which information is transmitted the length of an axon
empiricism
the view that knowledge should be acquired through observation and often an experiment
Creativity
A feature of thought and problem solving that includes the tendency to generate or recognize ideas considered to be high-quality, original, novel, and appropriate.
Inhibitory PSP
An electric potential that decreases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
information processing
humans accomplish this either in parallel (unconsciously) or in serial fashion (consciously)
Rehearsal
One strategy we user for keeping material in short-term memory, or for moving it into long-term memory, by repeating it over and over.
Observational Learning
Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another's conditioning. Thus, classical/operant conditioning takes place "vicariously" through observational learning. Example: By watching your friend get a good deal on a new car, you learn ways to get a good deal yourself.
Somatoform Disorders
conditions marked by physical symptoms that suggest an underlying medical illness, but that are actually psychological in origin
Well-Being
Refers to a person's sense of satisfaction with his or her life.
Delusions
False beliefs that often are symptoms of psychotic disorders.
construct validity
the true measure of validity. Construct validity is the extent to which the test measures a given characteristic, trait, or construct
Diathesis stress model
an explanation for psychological disorder proposing that an individual may have a predisposition (usually genetic) to a disorder, but environmental experiences determine if the disorder becomes manifested
Conditioned Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus; comes to elicit a learned response due to repeated pairng with an unconditioned stimulus.
fMRI
a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain (structure & activity)
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Learning disability
People who show a significant discrepancy between their measure intelligence and their academic performance
Availability Heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mine, we presume such events are common.
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 155)
hippoccampus
portion of brain located in temporal lobes. part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and formation of long term memories
Inner ear
(cochlea) a fluid filled, coiled tunnel that contain the receptors for hearing. Sound enters the cochlea through the oval window, which is vibrated by the ossicles. The ear's neural tissue, analogous to the retina of the eye, lies within the cochlea. This tissue sits on the basilar membrane that divides the cochlea into upper and lower chambers. The basilar membrane: which runs the length of the spiraled cochlea, holds the auditory receptors. Waves stimulate the hair cells, which convert this physical stimulation into neural impulses that are sent to the brain.
Random Assignment
Assign participants to experimental or control groups by chance
Experimental group-people receive the treatment
Control group-does not receive treatment, serve as a comparison
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex which have no specific motor or sensory repsonsibilities, but rather are involved in thinking, memory and judgment
Lloyd and Margaret Peterson
did work on short-term memory
Theory
a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
depressant
any agent that reduces the activity of the CNS
Conventional Morality
Moral reasoning is guided by mutual interpersonal expectations and interpersonal conformity.
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
sublimation
biological urges we dont want to talk about
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the close the object
counseling psychologists
psychologists who help people adapt to change or make changes in their lifestyle
arousal theory
the notion that people are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimum level of bodily arousal
polarization
when the neuron is at rest; condition of neuron when the inside of the neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside of Enron; is necessary to generate the neuron signal in release of this polarization
instinct theory
physical and mental instincts such as curiosity and fearfulness that causes one to act.
Criterion
The behavior that a test is designed to predict.
fluid intelligence
The basic power of reasoning and problem solving
directed consciousness
Extremely aware of what is going on
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 245)
explicit memory
memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled
Procedural Memory System
Houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional responses.
correlation coefficient
a positive one near 1.0 indicates two variable are positively related; a negative number indicates a negative relationship; zero indicates no relationship
Latent Content
The deeper meaning of a dream, usually involving symbolism hidden meaning, and repressed or obscured ideas and wishes
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the amnesia; eg, see in a boxer who suffers a severe blow to the head and loses memory for events after the blow
nature-nurture debate
the debate over the extent to which human behavior is determined by genetics and the environment
Population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
Functional Fixedness
An inability to conceive of novel uses for familiar objects
agonist
A chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
Germ Cells
Sperm and egg cells from which new life develops.
Case Study Research
An in depth investigation of an individual subject using direct interview, direct observation, and other data collection techniques. The research typically involves investigators analyzing a collection of case studies to look for patterns that permit general conclusions. Case studies are well suited for investigating certain phenomena, such as psychological disorders. They can also provide compelling, real life illustrations that bolster a hypothesis or theory.
mere exposure effect
this phenomenon causes one to prefer a stimulus as a consequence of repeated exposures to that stimulus, particularly is there is no adverse result of the exposure
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the network of nerves that radiate from the central nervous system to the rest of the body. The PNS comprises the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
absolute refractory period
minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin
Family therapy
A type of therapy in which two or more people who are committed to one another's well-being are treated at once, in and effort to change the ways the interact.
central core of the brain
the most primitive of all layers of the brain
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