American and French Revolution 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
2nd Estate
Nobles
Jacobins
radical revolutionaries
3rd Estate
Everybody Else
Mary Wollstonecraft
equality for women
Sans Culottes
with-out pants, anti-anti-revolutionaries
Trafalgar
Defeat of Napoleon's Invasion Fleet
Federal Powers are called what?
Enumerated
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, inventor of bifocals, lightning rod, and efficient wood-burning stove. Delegate to the Continental Congress, ambassador to Paris. Intellectual, championed the Enlightment's ideals.
bourgeoisie
middle class of the third estate
Rousseau
French philosopher, author, and social reformer
What did Thomas Paine write?
Common Sense
Treaty of Paris
Granted unconditional independence and established generous boundaries for former colonists
Storming of the Bastille
Peasants take notorious prison
Waterloo
In Belgium, where the British army, led by the Duke of Wellington, prepared for battle and fought with the Prussian forces to defeat Napoleon.
Thomas Hobbes
divine right of monarchs to rule
Jean-Paul Marat
was a Swiss-born French physician, philosopher, political theorist and scientist best known as a radical journalist and politician from the French Revolution. His journalism was renowned for its fiery character and uncompromising stance towards the new government, "enemies of the revolution" and basic reforms for the poorest members of society.
What type of ism means traditional political/social order and resist change?
conservatism
Why did many revolutions fail?
lack of unity
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Directory
This goverment was coup de etat by Napoleon; had 5 man exectutive branch
Declaration of Independence
July 1776, the Second Continential Congress issued this document written by Thomas Jefferson, it was based on ideas of the Enlightenment. A statement of the reasons for the American Colonies break with Britian. (natural rights - all men are created equal and endowed certain unalienable rights - life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. )
Battle of Saratoga
turning point in american revolution, France and Spain decide to help
levee en masse
denotes a short-term requisition of all able-bodied men to defend the nation and has to be viewed in connection with the political events in revolutionary France, namely the new concept of the democratic citizen as opposed to a royal subject.
Who fails to revolt against Russia only to have leaders executed?
Polish nationalists
Second Estate
the second estate of the realm: the nobility (especially British nobility) of the rank of duke or marquess or earl or viscount or baron (30% of land)
articles of confederation
unifies the colonies as one nation
o States do not want to give up very much power to a Federal/ cohesive government because until this point each colony had been independent up until this point. But they came together because they didn't want to have to protect themselves individually and individually set up relationships with other nations. But still weren't willing to give up their rights
o Ultimately fails - they met in Pennsylvania and threw out the articles of confederation and rewrote an entirely new constitution. Gave more power to the federal government. Was written in 1787 then ratified by nine states and finally established in 1789.
Old Regime
1770's - a political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution. The people were divided into three social classes or estates
Sun King
King Louis XIV's nick name, for he believed he was the source of all light in France.
Marie Antoinette
King Louis XVI's wife, she spent way too much money and the people of France hated her
What 4 economic problems plague France?
poor harvests, inflation, unemployment, shortages
What was added to guarantee individual rights?
Bill of Rights
old regime/ Louis XIV
• Has a very limited social structure: estates
o 1st Estate - clergy }
o 2nd estate - nobility}
 These two estates make up 2% of the population
 They have all the privileges that people born into the third estate can NEVER access
o 3rd Estate - everyone else
 98% of the population
 Pay taxes, etc. not happy with their position in society
Quartering Act
was used by the British forces in the American colonies to ensure that British troops had adequate housing and provisions.
Who is the king during the French Revolution?
King Louis XVI
Civil Code of 1804
also known as the Napoleonic Code, it safeguarded property, limited the rights of employees and women and centralized law of France
Boston Tea Party
an act of direct action protest by the American colonists against the British Government in which they destroyed many crates of tea belonging to the British East India Company and dumped it into the Boston Harbor.
louis and marie become insecure
• Louis XVI becomes insecure. A mob of women goes to Verssailles amd brings them to Paris so they can be watched. Called the baker and baker's wife (disrespectful)
What 5 countries unite in a war against France?
Great Britain, Dutch Netherlands, Spain, Austria, Prussia
american claims against the british
• Did not agree with the way their mother country was conducting business
• Tyrant - to seize power unlawfully
• Claimed that Geoge III had seized power and had no authority to do what he was doing
• Claimed that they weren't being represented
• Said that they were being virtually being represented - there were british people speaking for the colonies but the colonist said that they couldn't know how to represent them because they didn't know what life was life to the colonies
• The colonists had experienced such luxurious life styles up to this point so they got super mad when these spoils were taken away
declaration of the rights of man and citizen
• Was issued by the national assembly
• Very similar to our Declaration of Independence. They both express the rights of men, how your rights cannot impede on those of others, etc.
• But they have different purposes:
o Declaration of independence - to declare independence
o Declaration of the rights of man and citizen - equal - all have a fair trial
o DOROMAC was intended more for France, while the DOI was intended to broadcast reasons/beliefs to the world
declaration on the rights of women and the female scientist
• Saying that in nature, men and women are equal, so why should this not be true for society? This is the same argument that men used to show that women were inferior - Russeau and locke claim that they are inferior in nature.
• She fights for:
o Equal ownership of property - could not inehirit land
o Both need to obey the law - even women have to obey the law
o Be able to hold gov't position
• At this point, it was not even a possibility for women to have equal rights so she was beheaded
• Written by olympe de Gouges
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