American Government Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Amendments
changes
conferderation
league of states
Senate term
6 years
payment to vote
poll tax
Sovereign
Rule over all things-chapter 2
maryland
last state to ratify constitution
referendum
something that the legislative proposes which then has to be voted for by the people
law
the principles and regulations established in a community by some authority and applicable to its people, whether in the form of legislation or of custom and policies recognized and enforced by judicial decision.
diplomacy
states carry on politicial relations with each other; settling conflicts among nations by peaceful means
Unicameral
Having or consisting of one legislative chamber of house.
consul
represents the US commercial interests in foreign countries
subsidy
financial support given by the government
Federalism
two-tiered government in which both levels are sovereign and share authority over the same geographic jurisdiction
Sec. of housing and Urban development
Shaun Donovan
1st Amendment
Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly, Religion, and Assembly
Dictatorship
One person or small group controls government and citizens. No free elections of leader, no real choice, usually only one real political party, and many restrictions on individual rights
conference committee
a special committee created to negotiate differences on similar pieces of legislation passed by the house and senate
Measurement Error
failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions
naturalication
when a foreign born person gains citizenship
Rosseau
"The Social Contract", people are born good but environment and education corrupts them
socialism
an economic system in which the government owns and controls most factories and much or all of the nation's land
Article VII
Ratification. The approval of the states.
what is the 21st amendment?
abolition of prohibition
13th amendment
Section 1- neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, excerpt as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United State, or any places subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2- Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
federal system
A system of government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state and local governments.
Majority Rule/Minority Right
Government follows the preference of the majority while protecting the interest of the minority
power elite
A political theory espoused by C. Wright Mills which holds that an elite of corporate leaders, top military officers, and key political leaders make most political decisions
Political Action Committee (PAC)
organization through which interest groups raise and distribute money in elections. Must abide by legal contribution limits, but since a PAC is legally not part of the interest group and there are no limitations on the number of PACs an interest group can have they can make sizable donations to candidates or issues.
activists
People who tend to participate in all forms of politics
spoils system
the practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends
Civil Law
Codes of behavior in regards to businesses and contract relationships, group of individual
proportional representation
the electoral system in which the number of representatives for a state is based on the number of people living in the stat, used to determeing each states representatives in the house of representatives
Executive Orders
Rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
northwest ordinates 1787
guidelines for territories to become states, prohibited slavery in northwestern territories, and new states had to provide for education
Bail
The system that governs the status of individuals charged with committing crimes, from the time of their arrest to the time of their trial, and pending appeal, with the major purpose of ensuring their presence at trial
national party convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
managed news coverage
news coverage that is manipulated (managed) by a campaign manager or political consultant to gain media exposure for a political candidate
Senatorial courtesy
If a senator from the state involved and of the same party as the President objects to the nomination than the Senate will, out of courtesy to the senator, refuse to confirm the President's appointee
legislative veto
the authority of congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place
Interest group categories (Economic)
groups of individuals who gather together to promote changes in the government's economic policies.
-Primary focus: Economic change
-offer to their members the reward of private goods, which are benefits that the members of the econ. interest groups can partake in if the group successfully influences a change in gov't econ. policy.
-Generally, econ. interest groups are: large, well organized and well financed in large part due to private goods.
-ex//: American Bar Association, any union, US Chamber of Commerce, American Society of Interior designers, etc
Petition of Rights
One of the first documents that colonists based their early government on which was intended to curb the actions of Charles I, who ignored the rights of others to have a say in government.
Political resocialization
• Can happened when we get older, ideas can change but very slowly
WWII until present
political power is held between the military, the government, and the corporate world
League of Nations
first attempt to create a global social contract
low voter turnout
-people avoid actions that have no payoff
-18 year old can vote, bigger voter pool, not all 18 year old are voting
-people have lost faith in the effectiveness of voting
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
due process clause
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
Legislative power
the power to make law and to frame public policies
Commander in chief
The role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service
Equality of Result
The aim of policies intended to reduce de facto discriminatory effects.
Random Digit Dialing
a method of random sampling used in telephone surveys, in which the interviewers call respondents by dialing random telephone numbers in order to include those with unlisted numbers.
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
for security and to secure our liberties
why do we need government?
What was Charles Beard theory
framers only wanted to protect their own economic interest
Qualifications of a Representative
25 years old, Citizen for 7 years, Resident of your state
importance of being in the majority party in congress
...controls every commitee that exsits in congress
Literacy tests
it was a test you has to pass in order to vote. It is a very difficult test and had to pass 85% in order to vote.
The 1978 Ethics in Government Act
was allowed to lapse by Congress in 1999 and granted federal courts the power to appoint and
independent counsel.
How many district courts can each state have?
need to have 1 but can go up to 4
death penalty
...
6th Amendment
Criminal proceedings
reprieve
postponement of a sentence
personal staff
work for individuals
Grease
personal connections between lobbyists and politicians
5th Amendment
Rights of the accused
Trial
A judicial examination and determination of facts and legal issues arising between parties to a civil or criminal action
Impoundment
president refuses to spend money appreciated by Congress
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnam communist leader.
conference
temporary joint committee created to iron out differences between houses in the bill
Awareness
More educated people pay more attention to political events (college)
nationalism
an enduring sense of national indentity or consciousness that derives from cultural, historic, linguistic, or political forces.
bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
Voting machines are used...
to minimize vote-counting errors
Conneticut Compromise
one house of Congress-house of representatives-the states would represent according to the size of their populations. In the other house-senate-each state would have equal representaion. The eligible voters in each state would elect the House of Representatives, but the state legislature would choose senators.
coattails
the alleged tendency of candidates to win more votes in an election because of the presence at the top of the ticket of a better-known candidate, such as the president.
Solidary
Feeling a sense of belonging or association with others having similair intent
Realigning Elections
permanent shift in political support; minority party becomes the majority party
public agenda
the societal problems that the nation's political leaders and the general public agree need government attention
infotainment
a mix of information oriented to personalities or celebrities, not related to the days events and usually not linked to the days affairs or policy (good morning america)
Amnesty
This is a general pardon that government gives to people who have broken a law.
_____ passes spending bill, but not happily
House
Speaker of the House
House's powerful leader. Majority party chooses. Presides over sessions. 2nd in line for Presidency. Refers bills to proper committee.
Party De-alignment
A period in which the public disassociates itself from both parties
Political Culture
a distinctive and patterened way of thinking aout how political and economic life ought to be carried out
Merit System
A system that stresses the ability, education, and job performance of government employees rather than their political backgrounds.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
African-Americans could not be citizens (were considered property - they had no rights). Congress was powerless to stop the spread of slavery.
Courts of Appeals
12 dispersed geographically around the country, hear only appeals from federal district courts. 1 US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in Washington, D.C., hears cases from all over on patents and government contracts
Concurrent Powers
Powers that are shared between the federal and state governments...
-Chief Executive
the power to appoint the principal executive officers and to require each of them to report to the president on subjects relating to the duties of their departments. "the buck stops here"→Harry Truman.
democracy
a system of government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives
National Reconnaissance Office
Which of the following intelligence community organizations is responsible for aircraft and satellite intelligence gathering?
Bill
An introduction of a law. A proposed law
social contract
presumption of an imaginary or actual agreement amoung people to set up a government and obey its laws
colony
a territory rules by a more powerful nation called a colonial power
The president can pardon who?
anyone for any crime.
The Living Constitution
Means for adapting to social to social, political, and economic changes
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
based on the supremacy clause, the state cannot tax the banks
Attitude Consistency
The degree to which a person's public opinion all fall at about the same point on the liberal-conservative scale.
What is a committee that deals with money?
Appropriation committee
keynote address
speech given at a party convention to set the tone for the convention and the campaign to come
most powerful branch of government
The nation's Founders envisioned Congress as the first and
Concurring opinion
Written explanation of views of one or more judges who support the majority opinion, but wish to add or emphasize a point that was not made in the majority decision
personalized justice
What ended in this period of roman law?
head of state
the person who holds the highest position in a national government:
United States District Courts
the most active of the federal judiciary courts
party caucus
a closed meeting of a party's House or Senate members
The Connecticut Compromise
Aka the Big Compromise was written by Roger Sherman. Fixes problems: National Government can tax, raise an army, and regulate trade. Equal representation in the senate; satisfies the small states. Bicameral legislature. Representation in the House of Representatives based on population; satisfies big states
Veil of Ignorance
The idea of viewing society in which everyone's roles are reassigned, but you do not know what role you will get. You must assign resources and rights/liberties following this principle.
Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branch
Can be presidential or parliamentary government
write of habeas corpus
a person can't be imprisoned w/ out evidence
United States Senate
One of the houses or parts of the United States Congress. There are 100 members in the US Senate
full faith and credit
states must accept the laws of other states
what power does congress have over impeachment?
house: may impeach federal officials with 2/3 vote
senate: must try and convict the impeachment before removal of officials with 2/3 vote and chief justice presiding over the trial
What are the official roles of the President?
Runs executive office, wages war, appoints high executive officers of US (ambassadors, federal judges), state of union address.
What is the largest group that cannot vote in the United States?
Resident aliens.
(I looked this up on Google at first and just thought I'd share that some great minded person answered "Dead people". <--- Pretty funny.)
Chief legislator
Judicial
application of law
Tyranny
the abuse of power
4 Parts of State
Population
Territory
Sovereignty
Government
Dept of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
Appropriations
responsibility over federal budget; setting specific expenditures of $ by the govt. of the U.S.
france
where was jean rousseau from
treaty
a formal agreement between the government of two or more countries
Amend. #9
Rights Retained by the People
10th Amendment
powers reserved to the States
Invisible Hand
self-interest of producers and consumers in the free market
Damages
Monetary compensation that is awarded by a court in a civil action to an individual who has been injured through the wrongful conduct of another party
coalition
two different parties joining to benefit both of them, usually temporary
Unitary System
Government power resides with the central government and it receives all of its power from the people.
imports
goods and service produced outside a country but sold within its border
$440,000
President's current salary, as set by Congress
Separation of powers
dividing government power among legislative, executive, and judicial branches
National Economic Council
advise president on economic issues
What is sequence of events from primary/cacus stage to national convention?
n/a
Nationalized Election
an atypical congressional election in which the reelection rate is relatively low for one party's house and senate incumbents and national level issues exert more influence than usual on house and senate races.
limited government
government must be conducted by constitutional principles
Establishment Clause
provision in first amendment that congress cannot make laws respecting an establishment of religion
gerrymander
to draw a district's boundaries to gain advantage in elections
Minor Party
one of the many political parties without wide voter support
Pardon
A release from the punishment for or legal consequences of a crime.
White Primary
the practice of keeping blacks from voting in the southern states' primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation
Relations among states. Fed gov't has authority to resolve disputes.
Article IV
17th amend
Method of selecting us senators to direct popular election
Appellate Court
a court having jurisdiction to review cases and issues that were originally tried in lower courts
12th amendment
added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots
Republicans Income usually falls with:
Middle to Upper Classes
De Jure Segregation
segregation that is imposed by law.
Principal- Agent Relationship
- abdication v. strategic delegation
- bureaucratic drift
o bureaucratic implementation that produces policy more to the liking of the bureaucracy than to the original intention of the legislation
o but, without triggering a political reaction from elected officials
- bureaucracy takes on a life of its own
pluralism
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
appointment power
the authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position
Cloture
the mechanism by which a filibuster is cut off in the Senate
islamabad
the capital of Pakistan, in the N part, near Rawalpindi. 77,318.
Calendar of General Orders
list of bills for Senate consideration
Executive Order
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law.
define inalienble rights
rights the government can not take away(bill of rights) life,liberty, and the persuit of happiness...
Joint Commitee
Both sides join together to form a commitee.
Concurring Opinions
made when some members of the majority who agree with both the outcome and the rationale wish to emphasize of highlight a particular point→regular concurrence.
Constitution Limit #2
Each branch is checked by other branches so that no department has no more than its share of power.
Inherent Powers
• Executive power shall be vested in a President of the USA - vesting clause
• Vague, invested in a president, not the office—a continuous institution (range and scope is left open)
• The oath of office: preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the US
• What does this mean? Who defines this?
• Take care that the laws be faithfully executed
• Veto based upon view of policy (not on constitutionality)—Jackson was the first to do so
name three state powers
regulate trade within state, establish public schools, create local governments
filibuster
the use of long speeches to prevent a vote on a bill
The Great Decision
The decision to put aside the Articles of Confederation and draft a new constitution for the United States
Equal Pay Act 1963
equal pay for equal work; employers created different job classifications w/ varying rates of pay.
Massachusetts body of liberties of 1641
Americas first Bill of Rights
common law
an unwritten law made by a judge that has developed over centuries from those generally accepted ideas of right and wrong that have gained judicial recognition
Watchfire of Freedom
In January, the NWP lights and guards a "Watchfire for Freedom." It is maintained until the Suffrage Amendment passes US Senate on June 4. The battle for ratification by at least 36 states begins.
If the President can no longer serve, who becomes President?
The vice President
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
made admission into union a two stage affair:
Dred Scott v. Sanford
- issues of citizenship and status of blacks
- Taney: scott is not a citizen
- looks at history and parade of horribles
- Scott did not have standing to sue
- "perpetual and impassible barrier"
vote & run for office
What are TWO rights only for United State citizens?
at the constitutional convention, what did the large states agree on
they believed that the large state should dominate bicameral power (2 chambers for congress)
what is Gibbons vs. Ogden?
1824, no state can pass a law that conflicts with the Commerce clause
A senate with 2 members from each state
What was the upper part of the legislative branch?
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