American History Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Fall lines
Settle Oregon Question
John Jacob Astor
who are the owners?
British evacuate Boston.
Continental Congress adopts a resolution.
Deceleration of Independence was signed.
Prince Henry
Portugese-"Henry the Navigator" brought scholars into Portugal to help teach others how to make better maps and how to sail- he established a sea-port school
Herbert Hoover
1929-1933, Republican, "rugged individualism", first time Catholic runs for president (Alfred E. Smith), "pump priming"
(true/false) When Woodrow Wilson arrived in Europe, the European public hailed him as a hero and peacemaking savior.
U.S. attempts using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to temper the spread of Communism and prevent a "domino effect"
What did Westing House invent?
Air breaks
18th Amendment
established Prohibition in the US
John White
-Governor of the Roanoke colony
-returned to England for supplies, but could not return right away due to war
-when he returned, he found the area deserted and the words (CROATAN, and CRO) carved on the tree.
Scalawags were Southerners who married carpetbaggers.
Thirteenth Amendment
the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
unfain opinon not based on fact
the increased interest in science. -Nature, staged experiments and published findings. Benjamin Franklin
War Bonds
Debt Securities to help finance military operations during war used and issued by Union and Confederate governments
___________ was the study of how people react with one another in society.
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union military alliance with Eastern European nations under its control
Wrote an essay about what is enlightenment and won. Ideas, do not be lazy, you can challenge things with reason and thought, seeds for the revolution in America.
Homestead Act
build house, make improvements, and farm land for 5 years to get 160 acres of land.
Margaret Fuller
Woman who was influenced by Emerson
andrew carnegie
wealthiest steel makers in America (gained control over steel industry); utilized vertical integration
Freedom Rides
Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
religious view that reason and study of nature can lead one to knowledge of God
President Johnson
vetoed Civil Right Bill, Congress overrode veto
what country did texans struggle with to gain their independence
Underwood-Simmons Tariff
Wilsonians hoped this reduction in tariff levels would lead to greater competition in US markets
Lee's Movement North
Army smaller. McClellan discovers Lee's plans and blocks his path.
alexander hamilton
American statesman and writer on government: the first Secretary of the Treasury 1789–97; mortally wounded by Aaron Burr in a duel.
young woman of the 1920s who embraced a new attitude and fashions
The Nixon Doctrine
States America will honor its commitments but not lend as much aid in the future
Warren Commission
a commission headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy
total reform independence
What did the black hand want?
Seperate but equal
whites and black seperated but facilities were both "the same"
Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Churchill meet off the coast of Newfoundland to discuss changes that should take effect after WWII had ended that would maintain peace
salutary neglect
policy of relaxing regulations in the colonies in return for economic loyalty
money given as a reward, as to encourage enlistment in the army
What group was forcibly relocated by means of the Trail of Tears?
the Cherokee
Oregon Trail
the main route from the Mississippi River to the West Coast in the early 1800s
the sared text of islam divided into 114 chapters
not guilty
the supreme court verdict on andrew johnsons impeachment
A group of Puritans that broke away from the Anglican Church to form their own congregations.
Two newspaper tycoons who wrote exaggerated stories about the fighting and conditions in Cuba which caused sympathy for the Cuban Rebels?
Hearst & Pulitzer
the bourbons
white southern men becamse part of the "european royal family": vote the way their dad/grandad votes, teach their sons to vote democratic
Congress of Industrial Organization
labor organization that broke away from the American Federation of Labor
flank riders
Cowboys riding along the sides of the herd keeping it bunched.
General Thomas Gage
British General in Boston who had instructions to take away Colonists arms and arrest their leaders
5 beaches at D-Day
Omaha, Utah, Juno, Gold and Sword
appomatox courthouse
where robert e lee surrendered to the union
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
David Lloyd George
British leader at the Paris peace talks
the tools used to produce items or to do work
XYZ Affair
french demanded a bribe came to be called the XYZ affair
civil rights act
This secured the rights of freedmen., it gave citizenship to African- Americans
Development of Parties
Rose out of opposition to Hamilton's economic policies, centralization of power in the federal government, taxes, and Washington's pro-British stance-Federalists: organized by Hamilton-Republicans: organized by Jefferson and Madison
Who was one of the world's greatest athlete and also an Indian?
Jim Thorpe
writs of assistance
allows the offices to inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason
adobe homes traded with
apache and camonche who suppied them with bison and mean and hides
Who was Twiggy?
60s supermodel who ushered in an era of super thin models
French and Indian War
French and Indians fought against the British in America and British won
interior plains
The city of Marion is in what region of the U.S. ________
New Frontier Foreign Policy
-JKF criticized on Ike's policy (too much reliance on nukes)-Increased traditional defense spending-Developed flexible response theory-US responded would be proportional to soviet action
What do many consider the beginning of the modern Civil Rights Movement?
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
James A. Garfield's Party
VP - Arthur, SS - James G. Blaine
How did segregation and discrimination affect the lives of African Americans at the turn of the 20th Century?
Many opportunities that should have been available to them were not. They had to work much harder than whites.
the right to limit free speech during war time
schenk v. United States
What was Betty Friedan's, 'The Feminine Mystique'?
A best-selling book that described the feelings of women who felt unfufilled although they had everything they wanted in life.
Gone With the Wind
One of the most popular films of all time.
Austro-Hungarian & Germany (& USSR) carved into Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Czechoslovakia.
what new countries were formed by the Treaty of Versailles?
What was the main reason Jefferson wanted to buy the land known as the Louisiana Territory?
He didn't want any foreign colonies on U.S. soil
What were the 8 changes in working conditions?
Couldn't set own hoursThey had to work in a factoryHours: 16 hrs/day, 6 days/week, 96 hrs/weekTemperatures: average- 90 degrees +No minimum wageNo vacation (until 1920's)No unemployment compensationNo safety regulations
an introduction
J.E.B. Stuart
confederate general
Red Scare
fear of communism
year of Glorious Revolution
People who owe money
the largest country in Asia
Rhode Island
founded by Roger Williams
Yalta Conference-Leaders present
Roosevelt-US; Stalin-USSR, Churchill-Great Britain
When was the Universal Negro Improvement Association formed?
church built settlements that included a church, town, and farmlands. The goal was to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
space shuttle which disintegrates on reentry
the east
mainly forest. cherokee, creek natchez, seminole. lived in wigwams. atlantic ocean to missippi valley
Freedman's Bureau
provided: food, clothing, jobs, medical care, schools for former slaves and the poor whites
lived nonconformist lives and cared little for material goods
New Frontier
President JFK legislative program, which included proposals to provide medical care for the elderly, to rebuild blighted urban areas, aid education, bolster the national defense, increase international aid, and to expand the space program.
zimmerman note
confiscated by british intelligence-- Arthur zimmerman (german prime minister to mexico) was busy trying to get mexico to joing the war against us in exchange for all their lost land-- wilson released the note and the US was outraged
__________ are licenses that give an inventor the exclusive right to make, use or sell an invention
Yamasee War
war between the South Carolina settlers and the local natives who did not like being used for slavery and threatened for their land
US government assumes debt, takes over debt of old national government (france, dutch) debt of states, 75 million
thomas pickney
he creates the treaty with spain
Hiram Revels
an African American senator. He recruited African Americans for the Union army during the Civil War started a school for freed African Americans in St. Louis, Missouri, and served as chaplain of an African American regiment in Mississippi.
Elish Otis
invented elevator, allowed the height of buildings to exceed far beyond the 5-stories
An area that an individual or individuals defend and from which other members of the same species are usually excluded
Thomas Jefferson
Who was John Adams' vice president?
cornelius vanderbilt
He founded Vanderbilt University in Tenn. He was a big man with little education but he established a shipping-land transit across Nicaragua after the gold rush. He built a railway that connected New York to Chicago in 1873. He offered superior service at low rates and was extremely successful
Teller Amendment
Legislation that barred the United States from annexing Cuba, forcing it to leave Cuba independent once the Spanish-American War was over.
Square Deal
Roosevelt's idea that all people should have equal opportunity to succeed
accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
Civilian Conservation Corps
-hired young men
-improve natl parks
-soil conservation
-1st federal work relief program
a Mexican who claims Texas as his home
Douglas MacArthur
Commanded Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II. He was forced to surrender the Philippines in 1941 and was thereafter obsessed with its recapture, which he accomplished in 1944. He later commanded the American occupation of Japan and United Nations troops in the Korean War. Accepted Japanese surrender
Were members of a group that rejected the Church of England, sailed to America, and founded the Plymouth Colony in 1620.
Roosevelt Corollary
An addition to the Monroe doctorine, which U.S. claimed the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations whenever those nations seemed unstable
Bonus Army
Unemployed World War I veterans who came to Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand the immediate payment of the bonus congress had voted them in 1922. The veterans were forcibly removed from Anacostia Flats by federal troops under the command of Douglas MacArthur.
Genet Affair
(GW), refused to give aid Washington objected to this French ministers plan to hire American Privateers to fight on the high seas for France and against England.
a series of maneuvers and battles in the Western Theater of the American Civil War directed against Vicksburg, Mississippi, a fortress city that dominated the last Confederate-controlled section of the Mississippi River. The Union Army of the Tennessee under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant gained control of the river by capturing this stronghold and defeating Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton's forces stationed there.
Chinese Exclusion Act
____- shut down immigration from China
Rugged Individualism
The belief that all individuals can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
Berlin Airlift
11 months of American cargo planes supplied the Berliners with food, medicine, and coal.
What state laws unfairly used economic status to deny African Americans their right to vote?
poll taxes
To entice new settlers to Virginia by saying that new settlers who bought a company share for their passage to the new world were granted 50 acres of land
Tennessee Valley Authority
TVA-harnessed water power to generate electricity and prevent disastrous floods in the Tennesse Valley
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-1848: ended Mexican War
-Mexico recognized US claim to Texas
-US gave $15 million to Mexico for 525,000 sq mi.
-"Mexican Cession" : CA,NE,UT, & parts of AZ, NM, CO, and NY.
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
open door policy
all nations should have equal access to trade with china
What did Alred Thayer Mahan believe was t the key power to any imperialistic country?
a strong navy
National Bank Act
legislation passed in 1863 to make banking safer for investors, its provisions included a system of federally chartered banks, new requirements for loans, and a system for the inspection of banks
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
authorized the president to use "necessary" military force in Vietnam
mass production
The making of goods in factories in large amounts through the use of developments such as inanimate power, continually operating machinery, large labor forces, interchangeable parts, and assembly lines.
To prevent the state banks from loaning too much money, the Bank of the United States regularly collected bank notes and asked state banks to redeem them for ______.
gold and silver
Sir thomas More
Wrote the book, Utopia and was beheaded by King Henry the eighth because of refusing the acknoledge of the king's control of the church. Made fun of teh english government in 1516.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist sparked WWI
Fr. Coughlin
preached over the radio that the banks are guilty for the depression. He blamed international bankers who were mostly Jews for the big crash because they were the easiest to blame and that would satisfy his catholic audience.
Knights of Labor
A labor organization founded in 1869 that accepted workers of all trades and backgrounds, becoming the world's largest industrial union.
a low place in a mountain range that allowes travelers to cross over the other side
Battle of Bull Run
A great shock to northerners because of a Southern victory, Stonewall Jackson received his nickname here.
Arab Israeli Peace Talks
(GB1) Israel and Arab Nations peace talks, in 1993 Oslo, Norway, PLO (arafat) promise peace with Israel (rabin), israel offer west bank on condition that Arafat commitment to losing side in Gulf war, extremists opposed peace, el-Sadat assassinated, Rabin killed
prevent African Americans from exercising their rights.
Jim Crow laws were intended to
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
led the Allied invasion of North African and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge
Alfred T. Mahan
president of the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, had become one of the most outspoken advocates of American military expansion.
What was the KKK called in the 1920's?
the Middle Klan
Borders designated by the treaty of Paris
Present Northern Boundary, Florida, Mississippi River
Battle of Wounded Knee:
A bloody massacre in South Dakota of Sioux who had left their reservation in 1890 to engage in Ghost Dancing. This was the last "battle" of the Indian Wars
Helen Hunt Jackson
this woman wrote the book a Century of Dishonor and Ramona.
What was the Zimmerman Note?
A telegram sent to a German official in Mexico before WWI.
Treaty of Brest-Litousk, Poland, Ukraine and western front
_ was the treaty between Russia and Germany which took Russiaout of the war and included that Russia would surrender the territories of _ and _ to the Germans, allowing Germany to move thousands of troops from th Eastern Front to the_
Under the GI Bill what do vets get?
-free school and books
-$100 a month
changed their views about death, making them believe that death was a punishment for self-sinfulness. denied that individuals had any assurance of salvation, since God had decided each man's fate at the time of creation and that decision was immutable. ev
What was the early Puritan view of death?
What did the Revolution do for African Americans?
Many slaves escaped to freedom and many served in the war, impressing the white Americans
In the case Schenck v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruled that...
Freedom of speech could be curbed in wartime
Aztec Capital
Farmers Alliances
banning of trade
Winston Churchill
Britain's Prime Minister
Lord Cornwallis
Led the British army.
legislative "top down"
esther morris' technique
Chiang Kai-Shek
Leader of Nationalist China
compact theory
washington's theory or something
list that circulated among employers, beginning in 1947, containing the names of persons who should not be hired
Continental Army
Army formed by Continental Congress
Slavery in Africa differed from slavery as it developed in the Americas in that.
A. Women and children were not enslaved.
B. Only complete families were enslaved.
C. Enslavement lasted only seven years.
D. Slaves could move up in society and out of slavery.
a member of an elected assembly
Federalist - John Adams
Convert to monarchy
Internment camps
Relocation place for Japanese Americans during WWII
Protestant Episcopal Church
Basically Anglican, but American
Split off after Revolution
A naturalized citizen can never hold which position in government?
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Samuel Adams
Massachusetts man who controlled the sons of liberty, made propaganda out of the Boston Massacre, and was behind the Boston Tea Party
cash crop
Crop grown primarily for a profit
Federal Reserve System
privately owned, publicly controlled, central bank of the United States
royal air force : defended Britian during the Battle of Britian WWII
it was an agreement to stop fighting
Jeannette Rankin
first congresswoman from Montana who voted against the war resolution along with six seantors and fifty representatives; life-long committed pacifist
how did television help spur economic growth in the 1950's?
Nineteenth Ammendment
The Ammendment to the constitution which gives Women the full right to vote
General Meade actually managed to win when Pickett's Charge failed. Davis was planning to send negotiators to the North, but since the Union won Gettysburg Lincoln didn't accept them. together with the Battle of Vicksburg, this loss meant the South once and for all would not receive foreign aid.
(a) were upset over the modern society(b) ridiculed democracy, politics, art and religion
Bureau of Indian Affairs
ran resettlement of Indian Territory
Underground Railroad
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
George Washington
a young virginian; led troops toward the Ohio River in Spring of 1754.
What were the Northerners who moved to the South during reconstruciton called?
melting pot: stew
all nationalities melted together as new compound, new identity
treaty of paris
formally gave the usa its independence
models of the ancient Greek and Roman republics defined a just society as one in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good
Civil Rights Movement
movement to achieve equality for people of all races during the 1960s
Marcus Garvey
led the "black pride" movement - "return to Africa"
boats used by the Arctic Indians to fish
leaders of Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens and Charler Sumner
An unprecedented bribery scandal and investigation during the White House administration of United States President Warren G. Harding.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Ancient people were able to migrate to the Americas because of a frozen land mass called_________.
Adamson Act (1916)
8 hour day for railroad employees
What did George Rogers Clark do?
Captured Fort Sackville
Social -justice movement
During the 1890's and after, this important movement attracted people who sought to free people from the often devastating impact of urban life. It focused on the need for tenement house laws, more stringent child labor regulations, and better working conditions for women. These reformers also brought pressure on municipal agencies for better community services and facilities.
Dred Scott
slave who sued for freedom when taken to free state of Illinois
The chief justice who carried out, the ideas of Alexander hamilton concerning a powerful federal government was
John Marshall
Columbian Exchange
o The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa; exchange between two cultures; thousands died of smallpox and measles
o -Native Americans had no resistance to European diseases. Thousands dies of smallpox and measles
Step 1 ot 3
in 1936 Roosevelt requested congress to vote to stengthen the nave
Women's movement
the movement fr womens right began in the US in 1848. women activists joined to found the int. council for women
Richard Nixon
he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam
why were the Crusades important in Europe's history?
they brought change
Monroe Doctrine
a policy of U.S. oppostion to any European interference in the affairs of the western Hemisphere
Yellow Dog Contract
An agreement signed by workers before being hired, stipulating that they would not join a union after they are hired.
Trent steamer (1862)
was a British ship with Confederate commissioners, Slidell and Mason, which the Union stopped and took them as prisoners
Failures of Reconstruction
No industry in the southJim Crow lawsthey became too lenient on enforcing laws
What was speakeasies?
-Al Capone?
-Illegal bars where alcohol was served during Prohibition.
-People who smuggled liquor during Prohibition.
-Most notorious Prohibition-era gangster.
signs of weak economy
loss of jobs, inflation, stock market drop
Scopes Trail
Court Case in 1925 where the ideas of evolution and creationism were argued by William Jennings Byran and Clarence Darrow
An American Dilemma
Gunnar Myrdal wrote a book about how US could be most successful country ever but we had to ovecome segregation.
Black Tuesday-
a name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply.
Supreme Cout ruling that required free legal counsel to those arrested, who could afford it.
Gideon V. Wainwright 1963
plains of abraham
a high plain adjoining the city of Quebec, Canada: battlefield where the English under Wolfe defeated the French under Montcalm in 1759.
britain justified its policy of impressing american seamen by arguing that these sailors?
were deserters from the royal navy
Worcester v. Georgia 1832
-georgia tried to limit access of U.S. citizens to Cherokee land. -supreme Court invalidated Georgia's law.
-only the Federal Court could make decision about tribal land. -federal authority over states and tribes.
-tribes were sovereign (like a state).
Favorable Balance of Trade
when you have a greater amount of exports than imports.
ordered government to search for chemical pollutants
what did johnson do for the environment
Strategies for gaining right to vote
Go to state legislatures, sue, 19th Amendm't
the "elastic clause" gives congress the power to...?
pass laws needed to carry out its other powers
Who laid the siege on Fort Stanwix and who lifted the seige?
laid- British General St. Leger
Lifted- Benedict Arnold
Why did Taylor win the election of 1848?
The Free Soil Party siphoned votes from Cass in New York to give Taylor the state and the election.
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