Basic Chemistry Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dichromate
Cr2O7^2-
Magnesium
Mg^2+
Phosphate
PO4^3-
products
end result
Bismuth (V)
Bi^5+
Iodate (III)
IO2^-, Iodite
Lead (III)
Pb^3+, Plumbic
Cation
ion with positive charge
neutron
neutral particle of an atom
Covalent Bonds
when molecules share electrons
Polysaccharides:
Polymers of monosaccharides; Starch, cellulose, chitin
Paris green
an emerald-green, poisonous, water-insoluble powder made from arsenic trioxide and copper acetate used as pigment, insecticide or wood preservative
Element
pure substance consisting entirely of one type of atoms
Electrons
have negative charges equal in strength of the positive charge of the protons ( in the area around the atom [electron field])
suspension
a mixture with dispersted particles that settle out
True or False. Phospholipids are hydrophilic (water loving)?
False
fusion
in physics, a thermonuclear reaction in which nuclei of light atoms join to form nuclei of heavier atoms
silver
a white, ductile metallic element, used for making mirrors, coins, ornaments, table utensils, photographic chemicals, conductors, etc.
Volume
how much space an object makes up
orbital
a three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
Plasma
(physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors
sublimation
an exothermic change going from a solid to a gas.
Waxes
Long-chain fatty acid bonded to a long-chain alcohol; High melting point, Waterproof, Resistant to degradation
monounsaturate
a monounsaturated fat or fatty acid, as olive oil.
indicator
a substance, as litmus, that indicates the presence or concentration of a certain constituent
Atoms
It is defined as the ssmallest particle of an element that shows the chemical behavior of that element.
tungsten
a rare, metallic element with a bright-gray color and a high melting point, used in alloys of high-speed cutting tools and electric-lamp filaments
Compound
when two or more different atoms bind together to form a molecule
salt
a substance formed when a acid and base neutralize each other
Organics: Lipids
Insoluble in water, Long chains of repeating CH2 units; Renders molecule nonpolar
carboxyl group
the univalent radical COOH, present in and characteristic of organic acids.
Electronegativity
A measure of an atom's attraction for the electrons it shares in a chemical bond with another atom.
Atomic Weight
average of the atomic mass numbers of all the isotopes of an atom
What are negative ions?
atoms that have gained electrons (become negative because the number of electrons outnumber the protons.)ex. N-3
Transition Elements
They are elements which have one or more complete inner shells.
residue
an atom or group of atoms that remains as a solid on a filter paper after a liquid passes through in the filtration procedure
Charles's law
If the amount of gas and pressure is constant the volume goes up as the temperature goes up.
isotope
any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or different atomic weights. There are 275 isotopes of the 81 stable elem
What are the Basic Properties of Water?
Resists changes in temperature; Resists changes of state; Universal Solvent; Cohesive; Adhesive; High surface tension; Less dense as (solid) than as liquid
In what ways can radiation be beneficial?
Benefits include cancer treatment and the possible use to kill anthrax spores.
Dalton's Third Law of Atomic Theory
It states that atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element.
Hydronium
H3O+
Thiocyanate
SCN^-
Nitride
N^3-
Au
gold
Chromium (III)
Cr^3+
Kilo-
10^3, k
Hydrogen Oxalate
HC2O4^-, Binoxalate
Hydrogen Sulfide
HS^-, Bisulfide
element
a pure substance
Steroids
Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen; Skeletons of four fused carbon rings
neutrons
in the nucleus; no charge
Properties of Water
Temperature StabilizerUniversal SolventImportant ReactantImportant in processes of hydrolysis Important in CushioningImportnat in Absorption of Radiation
glycogen
a white, tasteless polysaccharide, (C6H10O5)n, molecularly similar to starch, constituting the principal carbohydrate storage material in animals and occurring chiefly in the liver, in muscle, and in fungi and yeasts.
tin
a low-melting, malleable, ductile metallic element nearly approaching silver in color and luster, used in plating and in making alloys and tinfoil
chemical equilibrium
reactions offset one another exactly
conductivity
how well elements conduct electric current
Steroids:
Organismal uses: Component of plasma membrane & hormones; Human uses: medicines
lactose
a disaccharide, C12H22O11, present in milk, that upon hydrolysis yields glucose and galactose.
Potential Energy
It is a stored energy.
krypton
an inert, monatomic gaseous element, present in very small amounts in the atmosphere
buffer
substance or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity and basicity
Valence Shell
the atoms outermost electron shell, involved in bonding
electron
the negativley charged particle in a atom
What nucleic acid is primarily active in protein synthesis?
RNA
prokaryotic
any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera, as th
quantum theory
any theory predating quantum mechanics that encompassed Planck's radiation formula and a scheme for obtaining discrete energy states for atoms, as Bohr theory.
uranium dioxide
a black, crystalline compound, UO2, insoluble in water, used in nuclear fuel rods, in ceramics, and pigments
covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Elements
substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods
valence electron
number of electrons in the outermost level, this determines an element's reactivity
What type of molecules are usually associated with living systems?
organic molecules
Groups
It is the vertical columns of elements in the periodic table.
van der waals force
force of attraction between large molecules
Condensation
When a gas is cooled to the boiling point and it becomes a liquid.
acid
a sour substance with a Ph of less than 7
True or False. The fats and oils (two examples of lipids) function to provide long-term energy storage for the body.
True
Chemical reaction
It is a reaction in which substances are used up and others are formed to take place.
Protein subunits: Amino acids
Proteins are polymers of amino acids; There are 20 different amino acidsthat make up proteins;All of them have basically the same structure except for what occurs at the placeholder R
Molecule
It is a cluster of two or more atoms that act as a unit.
Boyle's Law
If the amount of gas is fixed at one temperature then as the volume goes up the pressure goes down. (inverse relationship)
Non Polar covalent bond
It is a covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is less than 0.5
When looking at the periodic table what are the three pieces of information can you derive?
Atomic weight, atomic number, and Chemical symbol
How many molecules of water surround a single water molecule
3.7 molecules of water can surround one molecule of water
Chromate
CrO4^2-
Zinc
Zn^2+
Ar
Argon
Ethanoate
C2H3O2^-, Acetate
Oxalate
C2O4^2-, Ethandioate
Manganate (VII)
MnO4^-, Permangeate
Pentoses
Five carbon atoms
What is organic?
Carbon-based chemistry.
electron shells
synonym for energy level
DNA:
Sugar: Deoxyribose; Base: Cytosine, guanine;adenine, thymine; Strand: Double-stranded, Pairing across strands; Helix: yes; Where: Chromosomes of nucleus
starch
a white, tasteless, solid carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, occurring in the form of minute granules in the seeds, tubers, and other parts of plants, and forming an important constituent of rice, corn, wheat, beans, potatoes, and many other vegetable foods.
Do free radicals contain oxygen?
Yes
solution
a homogeneous mixture; consists of solutes dissolved in a solvent
atom
The smallest particle where a substance retains its identity.Its mass is measure in atomic mass units (AMU.)
True or False. Polysaccharides are sweet to taste.
False
cellulose
an inert carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, the chief constituent of the cell walls of plants and of wood, cotton, hemp, paper, etc.
carbon
an element that forms organic compounds with hydrogen and oxygen, that occurs in a pure state as diamond and graphite, in an impure state as charcoal
structural formula
notation that represents atoms and bonding
Matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
colliod
a type of mixture with dispersted particles that don't settle out
Hydrolysis:
Addition of water molecule; Used to disassemble polymers into monomer parts; Digestion of starch into glucose monomers
denaturation
to deprive (something) of its natural character, properties, etc.
anion
a negatively charged ion, as one attracted to the anode in electrolysis.
simple
composed of only one substance or element, not mixed
dalton
atomic mass unit; mass of proton or neutron
The combination of letters and numbers that indicates what elements and numbers of atoms make up a compound is a
Molecular formula.
Isotopes
have the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the number of neutrons they contain
crystal lattice
the pattern that ionic compounds are arranged in.
Organic molecules always contain which two elements?
carbon & hydrogen
melting
to become liquefied by warmth or heat, as ice, snow, butter, or metal.
Hypothesis
It is statement that is not obvious but is offered to explain the facts.
ionic bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
synthesis reaction
two or more elements come together to form a compound.
What are positive ions?
atoms that have lost electrons. (become positive because the number of protons outnumber the electrons.)ex. Ca+2
Mass
It is the quantity of matter in an object.
What is the atomic mass of an atom of carbon?
12
Excited states
It is the state in which an electron can also exist in any one of the higher energy levels.
What did Bohr do?
He came up with the idea that elctrons jump from level to level.
The Lewis Structure
It is the represntation of an atom in which the symbol of the element is surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of its valence electrons.
What is the weight and electrical charge of a proton?
positive charge and mass ≈ 1amu (atomic mass units); in nucleus
Chloride
Cl^-
O
Oxygen
Nickel (II)
Ni^2+
Mercury (II)
Hg^2+, Mercuric
Tin (II)
Sn^2+, Stannous
Hexoses
Six carbon atoms
chitin
a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, related chemically to cellulose, that forms a semitransparent horny substance and is a principal constituent of the exoskeleton, or outer covering, of insects, crustaceans, and arachnids.
Oils:
Organismal uses: Long-term energy storage in plants and their seeds; Human uses: Cooking oils
sucrose
a crystalline disaccharide, C12H22O11, the sugar obtained from the sugarcane, the sugar beet, and sorghum, and forming the greater part of maple sugar; sugar.
proton
positively charged particle of an atom
acid
molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and to lower its pH numerically
endothermic
any reaction where enegry is absorbed
Phospholipids:
Organismal uses: Component of plasma membrane; Human uses: No stick pan spray
fructose
a yellowish to white, crystalline, water-soluble, levorotatory ketose sugar, C6H12O6, sweeter than sucrose, occurring in invert sugar, honey, and a great many fruits: used in foodstuffs and in medicine chiefly in solution as an intravenous nutrient.
silicon
a nonmetallic element with amorphous and crystalline forms occurring in minerals and rocks, constituting more than 1/4 of the earth's crust
nucleus
center of the atom containing protons and neutrons
energy levels
different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom
Kinetic Energy
the energy of motion (moving objects)
diatomic molecule
The smallest covalent compound, any element bonded to itself. They are iodine, flourine, chlorine, hydrogen, heluim, and oxygen.
Protein-folding Diseases
Assembly of AA’s into protein extremely complex; Process overseen by “chaperone” molecules; Mad cow disease could be due to mis-folded proteins
precipitate
to separate (a substance) in solid form from a solution, as by means of a reagent.
stability
resistance or the degree of resistance to chemical change or disintegration
decomposition reaction
when a compound breaks into simpler substances.
**Molarity**
One mole of a substance is the molecular weight of that substance expressed in grams. They are always 6 x 10^23 molecules in a mole, no matter the substance.
Organics: Nucleic Acids
Polymers of nucleotides; Very specific cell functions; DNA & RNA
hydrocarbon
any of a class of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon, as an alkane, methane, CH4, an alkene, ethylene, C2H4, an alkyne, acetylene, C2H2, or an aromatic compound, benzene, C6H6.
Periodic table
It consists of all the elements arranged in order of atomic number.
Chemical reactions
The change of one or more substances into other substances.
saturated solution
a solution with all the material it can hold
What is pH?
measures the acidity, neutrality , or alkalinity of a solution.
Ionization Energy
It can be defined as the energy necessary to remove one electron from an atom in the gaseous state.
Evaporation
When a liquid changes to a gas at its boiling point.
Carbon atoms:
Very diverse as one atom can bond with up to four other atoms; Often bonds with other carbon atoms to make hydrocarbons; Can produce long carbon chains like octane; Can produce ring forms like cyclohexane
Hund's Rule
It states that each orbital of a given subshell is occupied by a single electron before pairing takes place.
What did Thompson do?
He came up with the plum pudding model.
law of definite composition
the statement that in a pure compound the elements are always combined in fixed proportions by weight
Dalton's Second Law of Atomic Theory
It states that all atoms of the same elements are identical.
organic
containing carbon
electron
negative charge
Ka > 1
strong acid
atomic #
number of protons
ketones
carbonyl group within carbon skeleton
Gibbs free energy < 0
spontaneous
carbohydrates
biological molecules composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
glucose
monosacchairde, used in photosynthesis in plants
carbonyl
C = O; ketones and aldehydes
lower energy: less or more stable?
more
hydrogen bonds
very strong dipole- dipole interactions
peptide bond
bond between two amino acids
solvent
having the power of dissolving; causing solution.
structural isomers
differ because different atoms in moleculs are bonded to different partner
substrate
the reactant on which an enzyme works
lipids
fats, oils, and waxes; secondary sorce of energy
heterogenous
having its source or origin outside the organism; having a foreign origin.
elctronegativity
attraction of an atom for an electron in a bond (when covalent bond is already formed)
electron cloud
where electrons are found and surround the atomic nucleus
atomic nucleus
center of the atom that contains protons and nuetrons
mixture
an aggregate of two or more substances that are not chemically united and that exist in no fixed proportion to each other.
sulfhydryl
- SH; thiol; two of them can help stabalize a protein
geometric isomers
2 atoms attatched by a double bond; can't rotate around axis of bond
colloidal dispersim
occurs when the particles are to small to be seen and are to small to settle on the bottom
suspension
the state in which the particles of a substance are mixed with a fluid but are undissolved
Van der Waals forces
attractions due to a temporary dipole- dipole; relitively weak; stronger in large molecules
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