AMSCO: Society, Culture, and Reform Flashcards

Terms Definitions
William Miller
Founder of the Millennialism/Seventh-Day Adventists religion; made people believe that Jesus would come back on 10/21/1844.
Temperance movement which involved relying on each other, sharing alcoholic experiences and relying upon divine help, to help keep each other sober. Total abstinence from alcohol was their goal. The group taught sobriety and preceded Alcoholics Anonymous by 100 years.
asylum movement
Efforts to propose government legislation to improve treatment of the insane with larger institutions and proper environmental and educational conditions.
New prisons in Pennsylvania where prisoners were placed in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on sins and repent; high rate of prisoner suicides caused the end of the system.
Brook Farm
Two hundred acre community in Massachusetts founded in 1841 by a group of twenty transcendentalists, who prospered until the community collapsed in debt after a large building went down in a fire.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Thomas Gallaudet
founded a school for the deaf
Bringham Young
the charismatic successor to Joseph Smith, who led the Mormon people from Illinois to a new land near the Great Salt Lake in Utah, which was then part of Mexico.
McGuffey readers
A series of elementary textbooks embedded with the virtues of hard work, punctuality, and sobriety.
American Colonization Society
Abolitionist organization founded in 1817 with the purpose of transporting blacks back to Africa, forming the Republic of Liberia in 1822.
Washington Irving
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
Brook Farm, George Ripley
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
William S. Mount
Painter of American rural life.
Theodore Parker
Theologian and radical reformer who lived at Brook Farm
Much of religious enthusiasm of the time was based on the widespread belief that the world was about to end with the second coming of Christ; preacher William Miller gained tens of thousands of followers by predicting a specific date when the second coming would occur (didn't happen-Millerites will become Seventh Day Adventists)
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913).
John Humphrey Noyes
created the Oneida community of "free-love"
Horace Mann
improved schools so children would be prepared for the industrial society
Frederick Church
Central figure in the Hudson River School, pupil of Thomas Cole, known for his landscapes and for painting colossal views of exotic places.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Henry Highland Garnet
Abolitionist leader who had escaped slavery and advocated slave rebellion.
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700's. Becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's. Congress became a battle ground between the pro- and anti- slavery forces.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Wrote The Scarlet Letter; originally a transcendentalist but later became a leading anti-transcendentalist.
Oneida Community
idea that everyone was married to each other, justified free-love. Society survived because of their creation of good silverware
Joseph Smith
founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
public school movement
The reforms of this movement included compulsory attendance for all kids, a longer school year, and increased teacher preparation.
antebellum period
Period before the Civil War in which romanticism, transcendentalism, religious revivalism, and reform movements all occurred; antebellum culture romanticized after war.
utopian communites
A group of people working to establish a perfect society on earth, many emphasized equality between men and women, and allowed people to persue spiritual and cooperative lifestyles that were unavailable in larger communites
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
First women's rights convention in American History. Issued "Declaration of Sentiments"-declared "all men and women are created equal" and listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them.
women's rights movement
Giving women the right to vote-Seneca Falls Convention.
Susan B. Anthony
She headed a national organization for women and was a leader in women's struggle to gain the right to vote.
Charles G. Finney
urged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals
Nat Turner
Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives.
David Walker
Son of a slave father and free black mother. He was an abolitionist newspaper writer who was involved with America's first African American newspaper and published the Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World.
Frederick Douglas; The North Star
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Samuel Gridley Howe
In 1832, he became the first director of the New England Institution for the Education of the Blind (now Perkins School for the Blind), the first such institution in the United States. Howe directed the school for the rest of his life.
Church of Latter-Day Saints; Mormons
Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830, it was a religion based on the Book of Mormon which linked the Native Americans to the lost tribes of Israel.
Church of the Latter Day Saints/ Mormons
believed that the Native Americans had something to do with the lost tribes of Israel. Their practice of polygamy was highly frowned upon.
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