Anatomy - The abdomen Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Label these parts
Which quadrant?Right lobe of livergallbladderpylorus1st-3rd parts of duodenumhead of pancreasright kidney and suprarenal glandright colic flexuresuperior part of ascending colonright half of transverse colon
Regions of the stomach:
Right hypochondriacLeft hypochondriacEpigastricT7 dermatomeRight lateral (lumbar)Left lateral (lumbar)UmbilicalT10 dermatomeRight inguinal (iliac)Left inguinal (iliac)Hypogastric (pubic)L1 dermatome
What muscle?Origin: transvere process of Lumbar vertebrae, bodies of T12-L5Insertion: lesser trochanter of femurInnervation: lumbar plexus via L2-L4Action: flexes thigh, flexes vertebral column laterally, balance trunk, flexes trunk when sitting
Psoas major
this structure passes between the aorta and superior messenteric
T/F Genitofemoral nerve passes through deep inguinal ring.
Rectus abdominis
Origin: pubic symphysis and pubic crest
Insertion: Xiphoid process and 5-7th costal cartilages
Innervation: Thoracoabdominal nerves
Action: Flexes trunk and compresses abdominal viscera. stabilizes &controls tilt of pelvis (antilordosis)
External oblique
origin: external surface of 5-12th ribs
Insertion: linea alba, pubic tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest
Innervation: thoracoabdominal nerves
Action: Pulls chest downward and compresses abodminal cavity
the iliospsoas and obturator signs are named for the muscles that lie in close approximation to this organ
What nerves carry sensory fibers associated with reflexes in GI tract?
Vagus Nerves
Which organ passes between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery?
lumbar arteries are from the ___ ___
abdominal aorta
____: the transitional region betweent he trunk and free lower limb___: extends from gluteal, abdominal, and perineal region proximally and knee distally.
gluteal region
Thigh/femoral region
Male and female morphologic characteristics do not develop until what week?The early genital systems in the two sexes are similar, which is knows as the ___.
indifferent state of development
All of the following are considered to be emergencies except: testicular torsion, appendicitis, cholelithiasis, ectopic pregnancy. .
What nerve is involved with the cremaster reflex?
Genitofemoral Nerve
What is a common cause of pneumoperitoneum?
perforated bowel
What is guarding?
• involuntary spasms of the abdominal muscles • the body's attempt to protect the viscera from pressure
What is the most common cause of appendicitis?
layers of the abdominal wall:
SkinSuperficial Fascia - Houses superfical blood vessels and cutaneous nn.Subcutaneous layer:Camper’s fascia - superficial fatty layerScarpa’s fascia - membranous layer underneath fatty layerDeep Fascia - Adheres to underlying muscles
describe an epigastric hernia:
- separation of rectus abdominus muscles
define arcuate line.
- point at which inferior epigastric vessels pierce the rectus abdominis muscles
A ___ is an abnormal passage that connects the vagina to other pelvic organs such as the bladder, urethra, rectum, or perineum, resulting in leakage of urine or feces into vagina
vaginal fistula
___ is a hernia of the bladderMainly happens in females, due to damage/prolapse of the ___ or their associated fascia during childbirth, which results in bladder herniation into vaginal wallRupture of the bladder may cause urine to escape intra or extrape
peritoneal muscles
In female embryos: the ___ ducts develop into most of the female genital tractIn males, the testes secrete ____ which inhibits development of these ducts. instead, the ___ ducts develop.
paramesonephric ducts/mullerian ducts
mullerian inhibiting substance, mesonephric
where does the inguinal ligament connect?
ASIS > pubic tubercle
hernia that goes through the inguinal canal
Indirect inguinal hernia
The left and right gastric veins belong to which venous system?
Portal venous system
What is Charcot's Triad?
- three symptoms attributed to cholangitis 1. jaundice 2. right upper quadrant pain 3. fever
The inguinal ligament and the lacunar ligament are infoldings of what muscle?
- external oblique muscle
testicular arteries go through the ___ ___ ___.
- deep inguinal ring
64% of appendices are located where?Pain from appendicitis is located where?
Lateral 1/3 of McBurney's point
Right lower quadrant, referred pain in umbilicus
Arterial supply to ureters (venous drainage follows arterial supply)Abdominal ureters: 4 arteriesPelvic ureters: 3 arteriesTerminal ureters: 2 arteries
Abdominal: renal, gonadal, abdominal, common iliac
Pelvic: common iliac, internal iliac, ovarian
Terminal: uterine, inferior vesicle
The ___ is 3-4 cm long and connects the neck of the gall bladder to the common hepatic duct.
cystic duct
Muscles of pelvic floor and wall: Obturator internus: Origin, insertion, innervationPiriformis: origin, insertion, innervationCoccygeous (Ischiococcygeous): origin, insertion, innervation
Obturator internus:
O: ischium, ileum, obturator membrane
I: femur
I: nerve to obturator internus and superior gemellus
O: sacrum, rim of greater sciatic notch, sacrotuberous ligament.
I: exits greater sciatic foramen to insert on femur
I: nerve to piriformis
Is used to locate sciatic nerve
O: ischial spine
I: inferior sacrum
I: nerve to lavator ani
Forms posteiror pelvic diaphragm
The epithelium of the superior 2/3 of the anal canal is derived from the endodermal _____. The inferior 1/3 is from the ectodermal ____.The junction of these two epithelia is indicated by the ____, which also indicates the approximate former site of the a
hindgut, proctodeum
pectinate line
causes of bright red blood in recturm
Dirverticulitis, hemorrhoids, Colon CA
Which artery can anastomose with ascending left colic artery?
Branches from middle colic artery
What are the 2 types of perotinitis?
primary and secondary perotinitus
What provides lymphatic drainage for the kidneys and testicles? To where do metastatic cells from the right testis drain? How about from the left?
The lumbar lymphatics. Right: primarily into the interaortal caval nodes with significant drainage to the right paracaval nodes, and a small amount to the left para-aortic nodes. Left: primarily to the left para-aortic nodes with significant drainage to the interaortal caval nodes, with essentially NO drainage to the right paracaval nodes.
Transumbilical plane:
- level of umbilicus to IV discs of L3 and L4
Transverse Abdominal - Origin, Action, Insertion, Innervation
Origin: Internal surfaces of 7-12th costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, laterla third of inguinal ligament
Insertion: linear alba with aponeurosis of ext oblique, pubic creast, pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
Innervation: Thoracoabdominal nerves
Action: Compresses and supports abdominal viscera
3 sets of kidneys develop sequentially in the embryo, called _____, ____ , and ____Which ones remain as permanent adult kidneys?Which ones remain as the wolffian duct?
mesonephros - remain as wolffian duct
metanephros - remain as adult kidney
Adult kidney a combination of metanephros and uteric bud
Where do the superficial inguinal lymph nodes receive lymph from?
The scrotum, penis, buttocks, and lower part of the anal canal
Why does appendicitis sometimes present as periumbilical pain?
the afferent fibers from the appendix enter the spinal cord at the T10 level
___ hernias are very rare, only 5% of hernias, but 80% of this type of hernias become ___ which can lead to ischemia and death.
- femoral hernias- incarcerated
What is contained in the renal hilum?
Anterior to posterior: renal vein, renal artery, renal pelvis (becomes ureter)
Sigmoid arteries can anastomose with which arteries?
Branches from left colic artery and superior rectal rectal artery
What is the obturator sign?
• the patient is supine and bend the patient knee at 90° • knee is rotated inward • obturator muscle puts pressure on the appendix
Are the adrenals within Gerota’s fascia and what is their general appearance? Does having a renal embryologic abnormality mean that you will have an adrenal abnormality?
The adrenals are within Gerota’s and they appear yellow orange with a mustard-like appearance. They are 3 to 5 cm. in greatest dimension and weigh approx. 5 g. The right is pyramidal and the left is crescentic in shape.

No, Embryologically, they develop independently.
What is the progression of the arterial supply to the kidney?
Renal artery, segmental artery, lobar artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, and then afferent arteries which feed the glomeruli
The rectus sheath is defined by the ___ ___, which occurs 1/3 the distance from the ___ to the ___ ___.
- arcuate line- umbilicus- pubic crest
Why is gastric pain felt in epigastrium
because stomach is supplied by T6-T10 nerves
layers in scrotal sac (out to in)
DECIT - (skin), dartos tunic, external spermatic fascia, cremasteric muscle, internal spermatic fascia, (extraperitoneal fat), tunica vaginalis
What is the difference between a direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
• Direct hernia go directly through the abdominal wall • Indirect hernia go through the inguinal canal
What GI structure is immediately anterior to the right renal hilum? What is the Kocher maneuver?
The second portion of the duodenum is immediately anterior to the right renal hilum. The Kocher maneuver refers to mobilizing this portion of the duodenum to expose the right kidney, renal pelvis or additional upper abdominal structures.
Below the arcuate line, the ___ ___ sheath is absent and the rectus abdominis muscle rests on the ____ ____.
- posterior rectus sheath is absent- transversalis fascia
What might cause rupture of the pancreas and what are some possible effects?____ is the most common type of pancreatic cancer (90% of cases). Why is it so deadly?___ is removal of most of the pancreas. It is sometimes performed in what condition? The head
Pancreatic rupture is rare due to its central placement in the body. Rupture require sudden, severe, forceful compression of the abdomen and it usually tears the duct system, resulting in leakage of pancreatic juice, which can digest surrounding tissues.
Ductal adenocarcinoma. Surgical resection is useless and it metastasizes quickly via the portal vein
Pacreatectomy - chronic pancreatitis. head is impossible to remove bc the blood supply, bile duct, and duodenum are all in it
What is an important presentation of ischemic bowel (or mesenteric ischemia)?
• Pain out of proportion to the exam • patient will have present with pain
During an RPLND what may occur if the superior and inferior hypogastric autonomic nervous system plexuses are disrupted?
Disruption of these plexuses may result in failure of seminal vesicle emission and/or failure of bladder neck closure resulting in retrograde ejaculation.
what are the two layers in abdomen not repeated in scrotal sac and why?
rectus abdominis - ends before scrotal sac. transversus abdominis - is pierced (but not stretched) by scrotal sac
At what spinal level does the IVC begin?
The IVC generally begins at L5 where the confluence of the common iliac veins is present.
Which is anterior, the renal artery or the vein? Is there a similar relationship between the common iliac arteries/veins?
The renal vein is anterior but this is reversed when the aorta & IVC divide into the common iliacs and the iliac artery is anterior.
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