Anatomy 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
homeo-
same
frons
forehead
cyto-
cell
leg
crural
books
bibli
-ptosis
dropping, falling
cuello (m.)
neck
orbital
eye area
medial
toward the midline
Subcutaneous
beneath the skin
Cremasteric fascia
from IOM
extracellular fluid
fluid outside cells
Carotid Canal
Internal Carotid Artery
Chemoreceptors are peripheral receptors that detect changes in ___, ___ in blood.
-CO2
-H 
foliate
lateral tongue during childhood
Decussation
crossing of nerve fibers
Stratum spinosum
Several layers of keratinocytes
 
Epidermal dendritic cells found here
 
"Alive"
epiglottic entrapment
aryepiglottic fold envelopes epiglottis
hair papilla
capshape cluster of cells
glycogen
skeletal muscle and liver cells
Supraspinatus: Abduction
What is the Capitulum?
Simple Cuboidal
Secretion, Absorption

Kidneys, small gland ducts, ovary surfaces
sinusoids
irregular blood-filled spaces, large fenestrations, large intercellular clefts, partial basement membrane (red bone marrow, liver, spleen-proteins, formed elements enter blood stream)
crus
the leg, from knee to ankle
lateral
Farther away from the midline (midsagittal plane).
axis
second cervical vertebra, presents an elongated, ridgelike spinous process as its most prominent characteristic
thalamus


relays sensory impulses bound for primary sensory areas of cortex
transmits motor impulses from cerebellum to motor areas of cortex
maintenance of consciousness
Action Potential
generated by excitable tissue
i.e. nerves + muscle cell
brief reversals of membrane potential
change in amplitude is by about 1000 mv
takes about 3 ms
is an all-none-event
voltage change travels along axon/sarcolemma/t-tubules
in a neuron the traveling voltage change is called a nerve impulse
blood leaves the heart via the
arteries
Glia
Modulate, support and insulate neurons with myelin sheaths. \"Nurse\" exchange waste and provide oxygen.
7 TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
BoneCartilageDense fibrousAdiposeLooseReticularHematopoietic (blood,bone marrow)
Homeostatic imbalance
internal conditions become less stable
Hormone Classification
Peptide hormones, Steroid hormones, Biogenic amines
exergonic
releases energy - fueled by ATP
Patellar
Pertaining to the anterior surface of the knee
ANS can be subdivided into...
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
invasive carcinoma
arises from glandular cells, most often in peripheral zone
wallarian
degeneration of the distal portion of a damaged neuronal process is called ________ degeneration.
2 types of bone tissue
Compact bone
Spongy bone
Ligaments / Tendons
-Bone to Bone-Bone to muscle
Muscle Tone
resting, no movement, maintains body position
Gray Matter components
Dorsal horn-sensory imputVentral horn -motor outputIntramedialateral horn- part where there is visceral output via the autonomic nervous systemcommisure- connects two sides
Nasal vestibule
-Contains hairs that filter incoming air
large intestine
colon-inferior to stomach and liver, reabsorbs water and electrolytes, compacts contents to feces, absorbs vitamins produced by bacteria, stores fecal material
because they vcontain both motor and sensory fibers, spinal nerves are called ____ nerves
mixed
Risorius
Draws corner of lip laterally ("closed mouth" smile)
term for the point of the shoulder
acromial
peroneal
pertaining to or situated near the fibula.
interosseous membrane of the leg the membrane that connects the interosseous borders of the shafts of the tibia and fibula
a syndesmosis
superficial
A term that suggests a location close to the surface of the body or a body part is...
The cribriform plate is part of which bone?a)ethmoidb)temporalc)parietald)sphenoide)nasal
ethmoid
Posterior longitudinal ligament prevents ()-runs in vertebral canal and prevents flexion
() longitudinal ligament prevent flexion
carbonic anhydrase
the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid is catalyzed by the enzyme __________
nucleus pulposus
annulus fibrosis
gelatinous inner sphere of disc, enables spine to absorb stresses
outer sphere containing the nucleus pulposus, binds vertebrae together and also absorbs stresses
Femoral sheath
Funnel shaped fascial tube lining the vascular lacuna of the subinguinal space enclosing the femoral artery and vein.
**Does NOT enclose the femoral nerve
**Great saphenous vein pierces the femoral sheath to drain blood into the femoral vein
secrete sebum, follow hair onto skin surface
sebacious glands
PARTS OF THE BLADDER
detrusor muscle, rugae, trigone, internal sphincter, external sphincter
apex: tipnasal septum: separates right and leftbridge: between eyes on noseala: wing like borders of nostrilsphiltrum: shallow vertical grove above lip
ear surface anatomy
are composed of actin, troponin and tropomyosin
thin filaments
nuclear pores
penetrate through the fused region of the nuclear envelope
CNS is made up of
brain and spinal cord
sinus
one of the hollow cavities in the skull connecting with the nasal cavities
proximal
nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Description: Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus secreting cells and bear cilia.
 
 
List the characteristics of cartilage and what makes it a unique fit for the function it performs?
3 Types: Hyaline Cartilage, Fibrocartilage, Elastic Cartilage
characteristics: has a matrix with fluid
protein (collagen- rigidity, Elastin - recoil)
carbohydrates - proteoglycans - water retention
minerals - hydroxyapatite
Components allow for cartilage to support and nourish structures its associated with.
Cartilage has no blood vessels or nerves, except those of the perichondrium --> slow healing after injury.
Sutural (Wormian) Bones
bones formed within suture lines of the skull bonesPterion Ossicle
CNVIII- name and exit from tongue
Vestibulocochlear, internal acoustic meatus
What is a salt?
is ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and OH
molarity is used to express
the concentration of a solution
4 muscles (8 total)-Illiopsoas-Sartorius-Quadriceps-Tensor Fascia Latae
Muscles of Medial Compartment of Thigh
Atomic Number
equal to the number of protons the atom contains
groin
the fold or hollow on either side of the front of the body where the thigh joins the abdomen
simple squamous epithelium
single layer of cells that resembles a tiled floor on the surface
why are nucleic acids important 
they provide the blueprint of live
what are the functions of the spleen
filters, stores blood(platlets), destroys "worn out" RBC, after birth the spleen stops producing RBC
What are the distinguishing characteristics of the cervical vertebrae?
- Small body
- Transverse foramina (hole)
- Bifid spinous process
 
circulatory system inclues ___ and ___.
cardiovascular system and lymphatic system
How does blood control temperature?
surface capillaries dilate when person gets hot, allowing more blood to flow to surface to radiate the heat off = flushed
interosseous ligaments of the foot ligaments that reinforce intertarsal (gliding) synovial joints
they connect adjacent tarsal bones; they are named for the two bones that they connect and whether they are located on the dorsal or plantar surface of those bones
effects of exercise on bones (2)
Exercise will increase bone strength and help retain bone mass.
What are the branches of the external carotid artery in descending order?
Superficial temporal (terminal branch), Maxillary (terminal branch) Posterior Auricular, Occipital, Facial, Lingual, Ascending Pharyngeal, Superior Thyroid
The greeks and romans believed that air was
an important visible (?) fluid.
Muscles That Move the Tongue
~~The tongue is comprised of intrinsic muscles that curl, squeeze and fold the tongue
~~The extrinsic tongue muscles attach to the tongue and cause the tongue to perform other movements such as protraction, retraction, depression and elevation
Why is the vertebral column longer than the spinal cord?
Because the vertebral column grows faster than the spinal cord
The jejunum is mainly located on what side of the body?
superior and upper left quadrant
three types of Unencapsulated Tactile Receptors
1.Free nerve endings – found in deep epidermis
2.Root hair complex – surrounds hair follicles in dermis
3.Tactile discs – located in the stratum basale of the epidermis
repulsion of upper and lower cheek teeth risks
transverse facial a/v, deep facial v, buccal v
VOLUME INVERSE TO PRESSURE
VOLUME INCREASE
V
PRESSURE DECREASE
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue and what do they do? (Ch. 9 pg. 238)
Skeletal (voluntary) muscle - moves the body by pulling on bones of the skeleton
Cardiac muscle - pushes blood through the arteries & veins
Smooth (involuntary) muscle - pushes fluids and solids along the digestive tract, among funtions in other systems
___ C water in equilibrium  with air containing a pO2 of ____ mm Hg contains slightly more than ___ O2 per liter of water
1. 37 C
2. 105 mm Hg
3. 3 ml 
Gloss
tongue
ALBA
white
ped-
children
hepato-
liver
iso
equal
angina
heart pain
Oligodendroglia
p. 72
rapidity restlessness
agit
medius
in the midline
Origin?
 
Coracobrachialis
 
Coracoid process of scapula
SKELETAL SYSTEM
(consists of)
Saggital
Left and Right Halves
diaphragm
tendinous center
lumbar part
costal part
sternal part
cupula
Nerve?
Serratus anterior
 
Long thoracic nerve
Unpaired cartilage
Epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid
CN8
Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) Nerve- hearing and equilibrium
Peroxisomes
Small lysosome-like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals
summation effect
radiographic densities are additive
sphenoid air sinuses
posterior to ethmoid
intrapulmonary pressure is always________ intrapleural pressure
greater than
______________________ is the hormone responsible for uterine contractions during labor.
oxytocin
supraspinatus
abduct arm
supraspinous fossa of scapula
greater tubercle of humerus
True
negative feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body's physiological variables get out of balance? t/f
ATP
an adenine- containing RNA nucleotide to which two additional phosphate groups have been added.
phospholipids
Similar to triglycerides, but contain a charged phosphate group, are an important cell membrane component, and are amphipathic.
In simpler terms, pelvic girdle =
hip
Inferior choncha?
Inferior Meatus - nasolacrimal duct
Neural tube formed, organogenesis, extremely susceptible to teratogens
Weeks 3-8
OSTEOARTHRITIS
degenerative arthritis, or wear nad tear
peristalsis
contractions of the muscularis externa that propel material through the digestive tract
Pedicle
– literally foot, this usually refers to a constricted portion or stalk that bridges one part ofthe structure with another.
teres major
medial rotation, shoulder adduction, extension
Insular lobe
Enter your back text here.
pubic symphysis
A prominent bony landmark involving both os coxae is the...
The ___ represent the inferior articular processes of S5 and curve inward
sacral cornua
the epithelial tissue through which material can readily diffuse, such as found in the alveoli of the lungs is
simple squamous
repolarization
recovery of the resting potential due to opening of voltage gated potassium ion channels and closing of voltage gated sodium ion channels is called ________.
the summation of the synaptic potentials from more than one presynaptic neuron is called
spatial summation
T/F: Levator ani attaches to obdurator fascia
T
The Morula begins to accumulate fluid and forms cavity and once that it appears it is called what
Blastocyst
How many permanent teeth do we have?
32
Axon
Axons are often referred to as “nerve fibers” an axon is a process that conveys nerve impulses (action potentials) away from a trigger point.
adventitia
dense network of collagen fibers that covers the muscularis externa of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and rectum, instead of a serosa layer
The epidermal layer associated with cellular death and the initiation of keratinization is the ______________.
stratum granulosum
adipose tissue
commonly called fat. fat cells predominate in this. insolates the body
inferior plane
everything below the trasverse line below the waist
albumin
any of a class of simple, sulfur-containing, water-soluble proteins that coagulate when heated, occurring in egg white, milk, blood, and other animal and vegetable tissues and secretions.
ion
an atom that loses or gains electrons
patella
Which bone is described as the only named and classified sesamoid bone in the human skeleton?
On the pelvic and posterior surfaces of the sacrum between its vertebral components are typically four pairs of ___ for the exit of the posterior and anterior rami of the spinal nerves.
sacral foramina
 
What nerve innervates the skin of hte face and all the teeth?
 
CN V
Trigeminal
Muscles that Keep Eye Open
Levator Palpebrae Superioris (striated)
 
Superior Tarsal (smooth)=helper m. w/ sympathetic innervation
tubuloacinar gland
gland with secretory cells in tubular and acinar portions
Cardinal (transverse cervical) ligament
Bilateral ligament (really just fascia) connecting the cervix of the uterus to the ischial spine - contains the uterine artery and vein
In cleavage the 16 cell stage is called what?
Morula
cofactor
non protein part neede for enzymes to function
ileum
3rd and final portion of the small intestine that functions primarily for absorption
The tube that receives urine from several nephrons and drains into the minor calyces is called the
collecting duct
Purpose of boundary tissue
maintain consistency of interstitial compartment (pH, temp, ions, 02, glucose)
baby exits womb, walls close; within 1 hr, it ends with the ejection of the placenta; 500-600mL of blood lost
placental
stratified
to form or place in strata or layers.
Injury to Suprascapular nerve
inability to initiate arm abduction... since this innervates supraspinatous muscle.
Cranial nerve supplying trapezium and sternomastoid muscles
Spinal accessory nerve (XI)
peptide bond
A covalent bond joining each pair of amino acids. Joined in a stepwise fashion with each covalent C to N bond joining one amino acid to the next.
Stress Test
A method of applying force to a structure to evaluate its integrity
Subcutaneous layer is also called the _________. It is composed of _____and _____tissue and lies beneah the dermis
hypodermis; connective; adipose
What two glands does the duodenum receive secretions from?
Liver:bile.Pancreas:bicabonate and proteolytic enzymes
31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves
8 cervical12 thoracic5 lumbar5 sacral1 coccygeal
Inn: Axillary Nerve, C5-C6
What are the multi-headed muscles? Multiple fibers?
who has the MANDIBULAR FOSSA?
the temporal bone!!!!!

it is underneath the zygomatic process
metacarpus
the part of a hand or forelimb, esp. of its bony structure, included between the wrist, or carpus, and the fingers, or phalanges.
What is the Axilla?
Pyramid shaped area formed by muscles and bone of shoulder and lateral surface of thoracic wall
What is chalazion?
 
What is a stye?
Blockage/inflammation of the tarsal gland
 
Blockage/inflammation of a sweat gland
What's the T Cells(cell-mediated immunity)-
detection of antigens inside cells antigen or fragment of antigen is displayed on cell's surface by MHC proteinT cell has surface receptor that recognizes a specific antigen activated T cells divide into several different types
Process - related to the bone surface
Any projection or bump
___is the only special sense or general sensation
Olfactory nerve (CN I)
where is the obturator foramen found? on which bone?
on the coxal bone
iliolumbar ligament a ligament that connects the transverse process of the L5 vertebra to the iliac crest
the iliolumbar ligament stabilizes the lumbosacral joint
 
What are the muscles of frowning?
depressor labii inferioris - depresses lower lip
depressor anguli oris - depresses angles of mouth
mentalis - elevates and wrinkles skin over chin; protrudes lowe lip
Advantage of retroperitoneal location of the last 3 parts of the duodenum
Common bile duct, major hepatic duct, and minor hepatic duct all enter 2nd part of duodenum
Since it is retroperitoneal, it has no mesentery, so volvulus (twisting of structure upon itself) cannot occur (retroperitoneal structures are fixed).
Name the 3 cusps of the tricuspid valve.
Anterior, Posterior and Septal.
What are surface membrane barriers of the immune system?
epidermis, mucous, nasal hairs, gastric juices, lacriminal secretion
Which muscle is obvious when foot is inverted and dorsiflexed? Which muscle when foot is everted and dorsiflexed?
1.) tibialis anterior2.) fibularis tertius
what is rugae and what are they lined with?
microscopic folds,depression between folds called gastric pits. Lined with epithelial cells
there are ___ pulmonary veins that bring back blood to the heart
4 total (two from each lung)
How are slow, intermediate, and fast fibers distributed in a muscle? (Ch. 9 pg. 250)
Most muscles contain all 3 types, although all fibers of a motor unit are the same type.  The percentages can be altered with physical conditioning
what are the 3 layers of connective tissue that surround the spinal cord and brain
meninges: pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater, b/n the arachnoid and pia mater is the subarachnoid space
Is it better to have a thick or thin cornea?
Thick is more stabile IOP
How do you make a one molar solution
dissolve one mole of glucose in one liter of water, one mole of glucose, get one mole in amu and then convert it to grams, so get 180 amu, change it to 180 grams
/ 179
Term:
Definition:
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