Anatomy 22 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hydr
water
METRO
uterus
uni-
one
auto-
self
gangli
swelling
 
Define: Digital
 
Fingers
Leukocyte
p. 70
mandible
lower jaw
stasi-
stay the same
phil, philo
like, love
Terms of Movement:
:-)
flow of blood vessels
arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins
cheek teeth
premolars and molars
Thoracic
pertaining to the chest
extension
increases angle between elements
pericardium
lines the pericardial cavity
Skeletal Muscle
Function: Voluntary movement; locomotino; manipulation of the environmet; facial expression; volunary control
ligaments of peritoneum
falciform and hepatoduodenal
Ureter innervation by
adjacent autonomic plexuses
BUCCINATOR
trumpeters muscle, chewing muscle, inserts into the orbicularis oris and flattens the cheek when contracted.
Contractions of the constrictor muscles of the __________ help prevent air from entering your esophagus during breathing.
pharynx
Brainstem:
~Nuclei in the mesencephalon
~control accommodation of the lens, blood pressure changes, blood vessel diameter changes, digestive activities, heart rate changes, and pupil size.
~Centers for cardiac, digestive and vasomotor functions are housed within the brainstem.
ef-
out, from (efferent: carries away from)
Taste
_____ pathway
Gustatory pathway
 
Ant 2/3s tongue (facial n CNVII)
Post 1/3 tongue (glosspharangeal n CNIX)
Enters brain thru Medulla
Sent thru Thalamus
Primary guastatory cortex in insular lobe
the lipid "family" (5)
Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids, and others.
Short bones
small, cubical skeletal structures, including the carpals and tarsals
teres major
Origin: lateral scapular border superior to inferior angle
 
Insertion: medial lip of intertubercular sulcus
 
Innervation: lower subscapular
Truncus arteriosus
Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
lining thejoint capsule secretes synovial fluid
saliva
70% submandibular, 25% parotid, 5% sublingual, contains salivary amylase to begin carb digestion, mucins that are glycoproteins for lubrication
Periosteum
Double layered membraneouter layer = dense irregular tissueinner layer = osteoblasts (forming), osteoclasts (destroying)
NAME SOME SHORT BONES (GIVE EXAMPLES)
carpals
tarsals
cephalic
of or pertaining to the head.
Spinal cord
Enter your back text here.
erythrocytes
The most numerous of the corpuscles are the...
intervertebral foramen
openings between vertebra made by pedicles
 
Desribe:
Abduction
Adduction
 
Abduction: to take away - movement away from midline
 
Adduction: bring together - movement toward midline
multipolar
neuron with several dendrites and one axon is classified as a(n) _______ neuron.
the ridges of the cerebral hemispheres are termed
gyri
chromatin
made up of DNA in the nucleus
Sperm maturation takes how many weeks?
9 weeks
4 Types of tissue
Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Nervous Special jobs for each. (Every Cat Makes Noodles)
branch of medicine that deals with prevention and correction of injuries and disorders of bones, joints, muscles
orthopedics
vocal folds
true vocal cords-folds in laryngeal wall that produce sound
Which of the following muscles extends, adducts, and rotates the humerus medially at the shoulder?
latissiumus dorsi
sperm (male)
long and streamlined, built for swimming to the egg for fertilization
internal Oblique
O: iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumnar fascia
I: ribs and costal cartilage
linea alba
A: increase intra-abdominal pressure during: defecation, urination, vomiting, expiration
hair
any of the numerous fine, usually cylindrical, keratinous filaments growing from the skin of humans and animals; a pilus.
sclera
gives shape to eyeball, protects inner parts
femoral artery
The artery that is transmitted through the adductor canal is the...
origin
where the muscle attaches to the bone or another muscle
 
What bones compose the cranial cavity (neurocranium)?
 
parietal (2)
temporal (2)
frontal
sphenoid
occipital
ethemoid
What is the name of this structure?
 
 
Articular disk
What is happening during a muscle twitch latent period?
Breif Delay
piriformis muscle
O:I:A:NS:AS:
O: pelvic surface of the sacrum (S-2,3,4)
I: superior aspect of the greater trochanter - passes laterally, exiting teh pelvis via greater sciatic foramen
A: lateral rotation of the thigh
NS: dorsal division of S-2 ventral ramus
AS: superior and inferior gluteal arteries 
In what organ does the most digestion and absorption occur?
jejunum
attachments of vastus intermedius
prox: femur
dis: tibular tuberosity via patellar tendon
walls of the ureters
inner mucosa-lined by transitional epithelium
middle muscular layer of longitudinal (inner) and circular (outer) smooth muscle
outer CT layer is continuous with fibrous renal capsule
The protein in the surface cells of the skin that toughens and waterproofs the skin is ______.
keratin
What is Native Immunity
basic, nonspecific, for primary infection, macrophage activity, increased vascularity, Anatomical barrier
transversal (horizontal) plan
divides body into top and bottom
organ
a grouping of tissues into a distinct structure, as a heart or kidney in animals or a leaf or stamen in plants, that performs a specialized task.
Rhomboid major
Retract the scapula and rotate it to depress the glenoid cavityDorsal scapular nerve
purpose of coccyx
attachment for the gluteus maximus and coccygeal muscles and the anococcygeal ligament
which one of the following cells is a type of macrophage that is specific to the vertebrate central nervous system
microglia
what is adrenal medulla known as?
the minisympathetic nervous system
What is collagen type 4
found in all basement membranes
What layer of the uterine wall is the site of implantation of fertilized egg?
Endometrium
What happens during DNA replication?
-helix uncoils and graduallly seperates into templates
motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls make up a .... when stimulated muscle fibers contract at once
motor unit
Serous Membrane
line major cavities of body (work to decrease friction)
-thoracic: lungs
-pericardial: heart
-peritoneal: abdominal
thorax
the part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen, enclosed by the ribs, sternum, and vertebrae, which contains the heart and lungs; the chest
Nerve Serratus Posterior Superior
VPR 1st 3 or 4 thoracic nerves
What are the actions of superior rectus? 3
- Elevates
- Adducts
- Intorts
What are the two major groups of vertebrates?
fish and tetrapods

    What is the function of acetycholinesterase?

 

It breaks down acetycholine 
Name the hollow cavities not open to outside in Dorsal (posterior) view (2)
Cranial & Spinal
compact bone is found on the _________.
spongy bone is found on the __________.
OUTSIDE-COMPACT BONE

INSIDE- SPONGY BONE
free edge
the part of teh nail in the front that overhangs the tip
 
 
What is unique about the atlas?
C1 = the atlas
 
holds the head
has no body - transferred to C2 in evolution
no bifid spinous process
large superior articular facets - articulate with the skull
allows head to move in yes motion
 
Cutaneous innervation of the umbilicus and inguinal fold from..
T10 (umbilicus) and L1 (inguinal fold)
Study of large body parts, visible to eye
Gross anatomy or macroscopic
Thoracic Vertebrae
Is it the basis for respiratory framework?
Where is the point of attachment for the ribs?
Why do these vertebrae have larger spinous processes?
Why do the intervertebral foramen lie between the vertebrae?
*T1-T12 allow for respiratory framework

*point of attachement for ribs are posterior

*thoracic vertebrae have larger spinous processes for greater muscle attachment

*interveterbral formaen lie btwn the vertebrae for spinal nerves and spinal cord to communicate
What nerves pass thru these foramina?
 
1) Optic canal: optic nerve (II)
2) Superior orbital fissure: III, IV, VI, V1
3) Foramen rotundum: V2
4) Foramen ovale: V3
5) Foramen spinosum: middle meningeal vessels
What happens when a blood vessel has been damage? hint:postive feedback (4)
(1)blood elements called platelts immdeitatly begin to cling to the injured site (2)and release chemicals that attract more platelts (3)this rapidly growing pile up of platelets intitates the sequence of events that finaly forms the clot
what do heart valves do?
they ensure one way blood flow through the heart
What can the condition of a skeleton inform about? (Ch. 7 pg. 200)
Medical history, sex ,age, race, muscle mass.
Aorta, Renal a., Segmental a., Lobar a., Interlobar a., Arcuate a., Interlobular a., Afferent arteriole*Glomerulus*Efferent arteriole, Peritubular Capillaries, Vasa Recta Capiill., Interlobular v., Arcuate v., Interlobar v., Renal v., Inf Vena Cava
Which are more common, Cortical or Juxtamedullary Nephrons?
Lateral and medial condyle of the distal femir articulates with...
the tibia to make up the knee joint
Transport of O2 in blood occurs?
in heme - 95% of 02in plasma - 5% dissolved
Brady
slow
PATHO
disease
algi
pain
lip-
fat
cort
covering
hallus
great toe
Answer
Herniated disc
subclavian
underlies clavicle
GER
produces tyrosine kinase
Embryologic derivatives
p. 74
pelvis
bellow belly button
Abdominal
Pertaining to the abdomen
Myo
Refers to the muscles
intestino delgado (m)
small intenstine
function of stomach
produce HCl
umbilicus
Latin, umbilīcus “navel, middle, center.” Anatomy, the depression in the center of the surface of the abdomen indicating the point of attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo; navel.
inguinal
pertaining to the groin region
Caudal
meaning away from the head
Origin?
Insertion?
Action?
Innervation?
 
Origin: spinous process of T11-L2
Innervation: Ribs 8-12
Action: Depresses ribs during exhalation
Nerve: anterior rami
QRS WAVE
ventricle depolarization ( contraction)
Synovial JointsAlways Present:sometimes present:
Always PresentCapsular LigamentsArticular CavityArticular (Hyaline) CartilageSynovium (Synovial Fluid)Sometimes PresentIntrinsic LigamentsTendonsFat PadsFibrocartilaginous DisksBursa
hematopoesis
process of blood cell formation
glenoid cavity
shallow concavity that articulates with the head of the humerous
What muscle closes the eyelids
Orbicularis Oculi
Bronchial tree
principal bronchial, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
Filtration Organ has:

tough capsule
capsule
affarent & efferent (large volume vs. small volume)
T/F: CSF surrounds the optic nerve
T
(1) emission has the greatest penetrating power
Gamma
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
inflammation of the synovial membrane
ascending colon
retroperitoneal structure with no mesentery associated
Posterior teeth have __ line angles
eight
rectus femoris
extend leg
anterior inferior iliac spine
tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
gallbladder
a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated
cervical enlargement
Enter your back text here.
coccyx
The most inferior vertebra in the adult skeleton is the...
Rhomboids major
Origin: Spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Vertebral border of scapula
Action: Adducts and downward rotates scapula
Innervation: Dorsal Scapular Nerve
they sympathetic and parasympathetic are subdivisions of
autonomic nervous system
digit in front of wing
alular digit (2)
Keratin
A tough protein pack in epidermal cells
(connects to desmosomes)
 
 
Directional Terms
describe relative positions of body parts
Cytoplasm of monocyte looks like --------------
"frosted glass"
Extrinsic muscles of the upper extremity and the respiratory muscles are innervated by what?
Ventral rami.
Vertebral Levels - Right Lung
T1 - T11
epicondyle
A prominence or projection on a bone.
Function of the pancreas
Enzyme production and secretion
the skin is blank to underlying structures.
superficial
Dermatome
area of skin innervated by cutaneous branches from a single spinal nerve
cardiovascular
pertaining to or affecting the heart and blood vessels
pyramids of medulla
Enter your back text here.
left ventricle
The heart chamber in which systemic circulation originates is the...
parietal
part of the membrane that covers the walls of the cavity
cerebellar white matter  
what the arbor vitae refers to
cartoid sheath
cylinder of fascia lateral to trachea; conducts important vessels
Trapezius : Action
Stabalize, Retracts, Raises & Rotates Scapula
minute volume
amount of air moved through the respiratory system per minute ( tidal volume) X (breaths per minute)
NAMEis the study of the function of the body's structural machinery
physiology
cells
are the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic fucntions of life nothing smaller is considered alive
deep vein thrombosis
formation of clot from prolonged sitting
Frontral section
cut along lengthwise that divides body or organ into superior and inferior parts; called cross section too
internal oblique abdominis
used during...
where
func
exhale

btwn external oblique and transverse

rotates trunk and flexes
spinal nerve
a series of paired nerves that originate in the spinal cord and emerge, branching out to the region of the neck, trunk, or limbs
Attachments of omohyoid
superior belly of omohyoid attached to hyoid, inferior belly attached to superior border of scapula near the suprasternal notch
 
depresses the hyoid bone
apex
the tip or pointed end of a conical structure
Superficial palmar arch
Ulnar artery + superficial branch of radial artery
Anatomical Position
Body erect, Face front, Upper limbs at sides, Plms facing forward, Lowerlimbs Parallel, Feet slightly apart.
What increases the mechanical advantage of the quadriceps femoris muscles during knee extension?
Patellofemoral joint
w/o a patella, need much stronger quadriceps muscles for bending the knee...patellofemoral joint enables easier extension of the knee b/c it creates a longer lever.
splenus capitas
O- spines of C7 and T-4I- occipital bone and mastoid process of temporal bone. A- rotate head same way by contracting one side, extending neck and head by contracting both
Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, extending into the carpometacarpal joint, complicated by subluxation with some posterior displacement.
Bennett's fracture
which of the following is present in thick skin but not in thin skin
stratum lucidium
classes of receptors based on the stimulating agent
(modality of stimulus)
1.Chemoreceptors
2.Thermoreceptors
3.Photoreceptors
4.Mechanoreceptors
5.Baroreceptors
6.Nociceptors
Where does the right lymphatic duct drain from?
Drains lymph from RUQ
intratubular germ cell neoplasms
may arise from sperm, embryonic or extraembryonic tissue
What is wave summation?
When stimuli arrive at different times causing larger contractions
What are istopes?
elements that have the same number of protons but differ numbers of nuetrons
Dendritic (Langerhans) Cells
found in the two layers of the epidermis (stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum), originate in bone marrow then migrate to the epidermis, stand guard against toxins microbes and other pathogens that get into the skin
Carpal tunnel syndrome
is a medical condition in which the median nerve is compressed at the wrist, leading to paresthesias, numbness and muscle weakness in the hand
Location of pulmonary arteries (lateral veiw of the lung)
Right lung: Pulmonary artery is found anterior and mostly parallel but actually slightly inferior to the bronchus.Left lung: the left lung is different, it is completely superior to everything, including the bronchus right below it.
dental formula (adult dog)
I 2/2 C 1/1 PM 4/4 M 2/3
Deep fibular nerve provides innervation to
motor innervation to the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg (extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior) and those of the dorsal foot (extensor digitorum brevis, extensor hallucis longus, fibularis tertius); also provides sensory innervation to the interspace b/w the great toe and 2nd toe.
where doe postgang neurons lie at in symp system?
-parallel to spinal cord-\"paravertebral ganglia\" or \"symp trunk ganglia(on both sides)\"
acromioclavicular joint the joint between the distal end of the clavicle and the acromion of the scapula
a plane synovial joint; the shape of the articulation encourages the acromion to slide inferior to the clavicle during dislocation (shoulder separation) a condition that occurs when the coracoclavicular ligament is torn; a small articular disk occurs with
where is the spleen located
in the upper guadrant of teh abdominal cavity, just beneath the diaphragm
FX: Stratified Epitheliam -- Where is it and What does it do?
Layered skin, oral cavity, pharynx, vocal folds, esophagus STRONG PROTECTION - WONT LET THINGS THROUGH Basal Cells: Cubodial/columnar -- outermost cells are flat squamous cells containilng keratin (protein that is insoluble in aqueous solutions and resistant to chemicals)
anterior tibiotalar ligament part of the deltoid ligament connecting the medial malleolus of the tibia with the talus
it is a ligament that reinforces the ankle joint
What is the most common glaucoma in US?
Open angle, more prevalent in blacks
WHAT ARE THE 2 BONE FEATURES OF THE OCCIPTAL BONE?
FORAMEN MAGNUM AND OCCIPTAL CONDYLES
Why is water's high heat of vaporization so beneficital to the human body?
bc when we sweat bc as the prespiration evaporates from our skin, large amounts of heat are removed from the body, providing a effective cooling mechanism
What is the range and mean for the angle of the head and neck of the femur? What affects this angle?
1.) 115-140 degrees is normal with 126 degrees being the mean.2.) Varies with age, gender, and development of the femur (congenital defect)
/ 178
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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