Anatomy 24 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Neph
kidney
ORO
mouth
hydro-
water
intra-
within
leuko
white
Nuchal ligament
jagged muscles
serratus
metencephalon
brainstem: pons
cerebellem
WA
Wernicke's area (emotion)
oido (m.)
inner ear
Endosteum:
The “inside” lining.
Major abductor of arm?
Deltoid
tibia
fuses with tarsal elements
cephalic
pertaining too the head
inferior rectuseye looks down
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hematopoiesis
the formation of blood.
What muscle straightens the wrist?
Extensor
papillae
populate the oropharyngeal wall, either scattered singly or arranged in transverse rows; they are directed caudally and aid in moving the bolus toward the esophagus
Chemotaxis
follow contentration levels toward inflammed areas
PARIETAL
outer layer of the lungs
____________ epithelium is exclusive to the urinary system.
transitional
Greater thoracic splanchnic nerves goes...
T5-T9.
exchange
consist of both synthesis and decomposition reactions
Pinocytosis
cell drinking (important in your digestive system)
an inhibitory postsynaptic potential
hyperpolarizes a neuron
Guarding
a protective, voluntary muscle spasm in an effort to protect an injured area
canaliculi
"little canals," pass nutrients in/out of osteon to blood supply
What does ATP stand for?
Adenoisine triphosphate
ENDOCARDIUM
inner most layer of the heart
pharynx
shared passageway for respiratory and digestive systems
Eccrine
Merocrine, palms, soles of feet, forehead, simple tubular
Nerve (Layers)
-Endoneurium: thin reticular CT surrounds axon
-Perinerium: fibrous CT, surround fascile (axon cluster)
-Epineurium: dense irregular CT, outer covering of nerve
axial
of, pertaining to, characterized by, or forming an axis:
epidural space
Enter your back text here.
visceral
A term that suggests some relationship to the internal body organs is...
fascia
a tough sheet of fibrous tissue binding the skin to underlying muscles or supporting and separating muscles
 
Describe:
cranial nerve II
 
optic nerve
traverses the optic canal
sensory
sight/vision
oxygen
red blood cells are highly specialized to transport _________
Openings of the Skull
foramen, canals, fissures
provides openings for spinal cords, blood vessels, cranial nerves
hyoglossus
hyoid bone to tonguepulls tongue down and backXII
This colon is also called Splenic flexure
Transverse
What is sheet like connective tissue that organizes and binds muscles?
FASCIA
Bronchopnumonia
bronchitis of both lungs; caused by strptococcus or staphylococcusEFA: +
submucosa
layer of areolar tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae-contains blood vessels, lymphatics, exocrine glands that secrete buffers and enzymes
Which of the following bones is unpaired?
vomer
transcription
involves the transfer of info from DNA's base sequence into the complementary base sequence of mRNA
Triceps Brachii
O: Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula (long head)
upper posterior shaft of humerus (lateral head)
lower posterior shaft of humerus
(medial head)
I: olecranon process of ulna
A: extends forearm
cardiovascular
of, pertaining to, or affecting the heart and blood vessels.
blood pressure measurement
measured using brachial artery, sphygmomanometer, cuff inflated until blood flow in brachial artery stops, cuff is deflated until a spurt of blood can pass through (systolic BP), cuff is deflated furing, sound suddenly becomes faint (diastolic BP); normal
glabella
Which of these terms describes a small eminence on the frontal bone?
what passes through the transverse foramen of the 6 upper cervical vertebrae?
the vertebral arteries
Vagus nerve 10
Mixed. Branchiomotor innervation to most laryngeal and all pharyngeal muscles. Provides parasympathetic fibers to nearly all thoracic and abdominal viscera down to the splenic flexure; all special sense of taste from the epiglottis. *Controls muscles for voice and resonance and the soft palate.
where is the laryngeal saccule?
bw ventricularis and vocalis
Systolic Blood Pressure
Heart doing its work- ventricles squeezing
when inflammed the ischial bursa is painful when?
when sitting
What is Peritonitis?
when infectious agents get into abdominal cavity cause damage to organs and death
innervation of g medius and minimus
superior gluteal nerve
soft palate
marks the boundary line between the superior nasopharynx and the rest of the pharynx, uvula at end
The bone that has the sella turcica, greater wings, and optic canals is
sphenoid
the blank surfaces of the thighs may be in contace.
medial
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelia
Secretes sweat; ovarian hormones & produces sperm
Found in sweat gland ducts, ovarian follicles & seminiferous tubules
homeostasis
the tendency of a system, esp. the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus tending to disturb its normal condition or function.
midsagittal plane
divides the body into right and left halves
The ___ horn of the spinal cord contains nerve bodies for sensory info, the ___ horn contains nerve bodies for motor info
dorsal, ventral
Which of the following imaging systems aligns all the hydrogen atoms in the body
Magnetic resonance imaging
Sagittal Plane
A plane that divides the body into left and right portions.
Inferior hypogastric plexuses formed by...
 
Contains what kind of nerve fibers?
 
Innervates...
Inferior hypogastric plexuses formed by hypogastric nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves
 
Contains presynaptic parasympathetic, postsynaptic sympathetic, and visceral afferent nerve fibers
 
Subplexuses to innervate pelvic viscera
NAMEis if the first body part is away from the midline of the body or one the outer side
lateral
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diease (COPD)
persistent obstruction of airway; caused by emphysema or chronic bronchitisEFA: -
____ have scars and healing may be accompanied by the formation of granulations.
large wounds
Are the strongest part of the hip bone
Ischial tuberosities
Achilles tendon
the tendon joining the calf muscles to the heel bone
What are the layers of the pericardium?
Fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium, visceral pericardium and pericardial space.
What is strabismus?
 
What does it cause?
Divergence of the optic axes
 
Diplopia/double vision
what does the repiratory mucosa do?
(ciliated epithelium)-mucus to trap bacteria, cilia to sweep particules to back of nasal cavity
The lower esophageal sphincter prevents what from occuring?
Prevents stomach acid from leaving stomach GERD
what is released when we feel pain?
-glutamate or substance p
Frontal Lobe: Primary Motor Cortex
voluntary, planned control of skeletal muscles
damage to SA node?
AV node assumes pacemaker role but at slower rate
amino acids and their composition
The 20 different building blocks of proteins, containing C, H, O, and N.
Attachments, innervation, and actions of the quadriceps formis muscles
Rectus femoris: AIIS to the quadriceps tendon which covers the patella and continues inferiorly as the patellar ligament which attaches to the tibial tuberosity
- steadies and flexes the hip and flexes the thigh (crosses both joints (biarticular muscle))
 
Vastus lateralis: greater trochanter to the quadriceps tendon
Vastus intermedius: intertrochanteric line to quadriceps tendon
Vastus medialis: lesser trochanter to quadriceps tendon
 
**All muscles innervated by the femoral nerve
**All of these muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee
**parts of the muscles that do not join the quardiceps tendon descend along either side of the patella to form the medial and lateral patellar retinaculums
The neurological system has two main divisions. What are they?
1. The central2. The peripheral
Functions of Lymphatic System
1) picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood 2) disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream 3) houses white blood cells involved with immunity
synovial inj of thoracic limb
coffin: 1cm prox to coronet at lat border of common ext tendonfetlock: prox palmar pouch bw sus lig and m3 slightly prox to sesmoid bonescarpal: distal dimple med or lat to tendon of ext carpi radialis for midcarpal sacnavicular bursa: digital fossa at palmar midlineparallel to sole (pases thru DDF tendon)
3 compartments of thigh, actions, and innervations
1. Anterior (extends into lateral)- femoral innervation, extensors2. Medial- obturator innervation, adductors3. Posterior- flexors, siatic innervation
Give an overview to what happens when emphysema occurs.
*early stages destroy ciliated epithelia which helps remove debris

*if debris deposits then walls break down = less surface area

*barrel chested in order to try to take in more air. but really doesn't

*susceptible to respiratory diseases (pneumonia)
Explain the difference of the anatomical and surgical neck the the humerus. (Ch. 7 pg. 179)
The anatomical neck is the area below the head where the bone narrows, while the surgical neck is below this at the metaphysis, and is the place that is most likely to break
- Mesovarium of Broad Ligament- Ovarian Ligament- Suspensory Ligament
What is the blood supply to the ovary?
describe the path of the inferior cluneal nerves?
arise near the proximal end and pass along the deep surface of the gluteus maximus muscle, then pass around its inferior edge to the skin
are th nasal bones paired? what do they form?
YES! they form the bridge of the nose.
Zn
Zinc
anti-
against
viscera-
organ
crural
leg
-ptosis
dropping
-pnea
to breathe
ortho-
straight, normal
Ectomy
Excise, Remove
ishiatic spine
dorsal border
horizontal abdominal muscles
transversus
Vertebral
area of spine
islets of langerhans
produce insulin
compound exocrine gland
branched duct
NAMEare the buiding blocks
atoms
fenestraeted
numerous fenestrae between cells
opsin
glycoprotein, absord different wavelengths of light
cytosol
fluid that suspends other elements
pyramids are found in the
medulla
Pterygoid muscle
open and close mouth
Maxillary nerve enters pterygopallatine fossa via_
Foramen rotundum
Hair
Dead keratinocytes (hard keratin: tougher than soft and wont flake off)
phase 1 of menstruation
menstrual phase
coupling acin and myosin
myosin grabs actin
lamina
two broad plates, extending dorsally and medially from the pedicles, fusing to complete the roof of the vertebral arch
cerebral nuclei
regulate unconscious control of skeletal muscles
Leg
region between knee and ankle
composed of 2 bones: tibia and fibula
tibia - more massive bone; receives weight from femur
fibula - stick-like bone
interoosseous membrane connects the two
What does the illeum empty into?
cecum
effector
structure that carries out the response that restores homeostasis
Myogram
The record of a muscle contraction.
tunica adventitia, media, intima
Left coronary artery
Anterior Triangle
~lies anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle
~further subdivided into four smaller triangles:
1.Submental
2.Submandibular
3.Carotid
4.Muscular
larynx
a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, where the vocal cords are located
muscular
generates the physical force needed to make body structures move and genrate body heat
ligaments
Which of these is responsible for attaching one bone to another bone?
Pronator quadratus
Origin: Medial surface of distal ulna
Insertion: Anterolateral surface of distal radius
Action: Pronates forearm
Innervation:Medial Nerve
A patient with appendicitus usually has pain in the _____ quadrant of the abdomen.
a. left-lower
b. right-lower
c. left-upper
d. right-upper
b. right-lower
deltoid tuberosity
lateral process near midpoint of crest
Varicose Veins
leaky venous veins- twisted and dialated veins
Adductor canal
aka Subsartorial (b/c covered by sartorius muscle) or Hunter's Canal
Intermuscular passageway delivering the femoral vessels from the femoral triangle to the popliteal fossa - extends from the apex of the femoral triangle to the adductor hiatus
Each shell can only hold (1) electrons
2
the greater the concentration of a gas in a gas mixture, the greater its partial pressuretrue/false
true
osmoreceptors
sense the osmotic pressure of body fluids
salivary glands below the ears
parotid salivary glands
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
Serratus Anterior is an important muscle of the upperlimb due to its actions on the scapula. However,when the scapula is fixed this muscle acts upon therib cage and thereby assists in breathing. You lookedfor the attachments of serratus anterior on the firstand second ribs.Origin: Ribs 1 through 8 or 9Insertion: Vertebral Border of the ScapulaAction: Protracts Scapula, Assists in Breathing,Prevents Scapular WingingInnervation: Long Thoracic Nerve (C5, C6 & C7)
Nucleotides
building blocks of DNA; contain one nitrongen base, sugar, phosphae group
What is stress?
The physiological accumulation of anger, emotions, blood pressure.
mitosis
the usual method of cell division, characterized typically by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates longitudinally into two parts, one part of each chromosome being
nerve endings
convey infromation about pain from the joint to the spinal chord and brain
muscle tissue
The myocardium of the heart is composed of what elementary tissue?


Energy must be absorbed to create the bond thus these are energy absorbing reactions
synthesis reaction 
Alveolar glands that produce a white, oily substance, usually open into hair follicles.
Sebaceous Glands
avian wattles
colored fleshy lobe hanging from the head or neck of domestic chickens, turkeys, and some other birds
Coronal Plane
aslo called a frontal plane
is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back)parts
What is this feature called?
 
What nerve is found here?
 
 
Suprascapular notch
 
Supra scapular nerve
Cuboidal epithelium
cells as wide as they are tall
Sagittal section
lengtwise dividing body into left and right parts
DCT versus PCT
DCT has smaller diameter, lacks microvilli, epithelial cells have distinct boundaries, function is secretion as opposed to absorption
Condyloid Joints
usually combine, or have the potential to combine, translation with two of thespin movements.
Alimentary Canal: (main organs)
mouth (oral cavity): mechanical digestion

pharynx: swallow with epiglottis

esophogus: mucous glands lubriate food, push it along

stomach: absorb H2O and drugs, bolus becomes chyme

small intestine: absorption & digestion, peristalsis and segmentation

large intestine: absorb H2O and electrolytes, store feces, peristaltic movement of feces towards anus
ANS: Autonomic Reflexes
ANS helps maintain homeostasis through involuntary autonomic reflexes {smooth & cardiac muscle contractions, excretion of glands, heart rate, digestive activities, alteration of pupil}
cell plasma membrane
structure that separates intra extra-cellular fluid
systemic circulation
The part of the vascular system that takes oxygenated blood to the body and then returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart is the...
What is the Cremaster muscle?
strips of internal abdominal obliquepulls up or relaxes spermatic cord depending on temperature.
What spinal nerves do the superior clunial nerve and middle clunial nerve arise from?
L2-L3; S1-S3
the motor control of the left side of the body by the left side of the brain is termed
ipsilateral
the small muscle situated inferior to piriformis muscle and deep to some neurovascular structures is called?
superior gemellus muscle
What is know as the most dilated portion of the GI tract, expanding to hold up to 1 quart of material?
The stomach
options that symp pregang neurons have to synapse at
-superior cervical ganglion
-middle cervical ganglion
-inferior cervical ganglion
-adrenal gland which directly release NE or E
In order for these specific cells to respond to the hormone, what must be present?
Protein receptor.
lateral recumbent
a position to which the patient is lying on the left or right side
right atrium
right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
gross anatomy
Which of thse is the study of the structure of the body without the aid of a microscope?
bipolar cells are commonly
found in the retina of the eye
Skin participates in the maintenance of homeostatic body temperature by
 
modulation of dermal blood flow
sweating
thickening in cold weather
1 and 2
2 and 3
 
modulation of dermal blood flow
sweating
thickening in cold weather
1 and 2
2 and 3
 
The opening of the urethra is called what?
external urethral meatus
what is the base of the phalanges
proximal extremity
widened concave posterior end
nasal bone
the bones that form the bed of the nose
posterior aspect of the lower legs
Where is the soleus muscle located?
What is the basicranium?
Bones forming the floor of the cranal cavity
What is another name for C2?
 
What are some distinguishing characteristics for C2?
What does it articulate with?
 
What is C2 held in place by?
 
What action is it responsible for?
Axis
 
Dens:
Anterior arch of the atlas
 
Transverse ligament of the atlas
 
Shaking the head no
what are the synovial articulation relative to the calcaneus
talus = superior surface
cuboid = distal surface
navicular = distomedial corner (rare, may be present)
What is considered part of the anterior mediastinum?
region b/w the sternal angle, pericardial sac and diaphragm. (contains the inferior part of the thymus)
How are you skeletal muscles "voluntary" and how is this state accomplished? (Ch. 9 pg. 239)
Your muscles are voluntary because you control contractions consciously through the use of the nervous system.  Nerves (bundles of axons) innervate each muscle fiber and chem. communication occurs at the neuromuscular synapse
The heart makes a characteristic "Lub-Dub" sound. What is the "Lub"? "Dub"?
Lub= closing of the AV valvesDub= closing og the semilunar valves.
The thickness of the interventricular septum
is similar to the thickness of all other apects of the wall of the left ventricle, (very thick)
-(right ventricle-thin walls except for septum)
Nose, Mouth, and pharynx regardin air purification
-tissue surface warms air to body temperature before it gets to lung
-hair of nose filters out large particles
-particles greater than 10 u stick to mucus on membranes
what happens when the myocardium contracts?
blood moves from the atria to the ventricles and then blood is released from ventricles
What are some of the conditions that might include the
symptom of “chest pressure”?
• Esophageal spasm.
• Tearing of the aorta (dissection).
• Pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium).
ENDOSTEUM IS APART OF A LNOG BONE. WHAT IS IT AND WHAT DOES IT DO?
it is a delicate CT membrane. it lines the medullary cavity
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Term:
Definition:
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