Anatomy 29 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pelvic girdle
same, equal
Rectus Femoris`
oocyte activation
prevents polyspermy
covering around fasicle 
myo, mys, sarco
insertion e.c.u
base 5th meta
Refers to the bones
Gliding Joint
nonaxia, carpal bones
lower it feeling down
latin for gladiators sword
relatively large projection or prominent bump
blood in a joint cavity
What vertebrae is this?
Atlas (C1)
maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, spenoid
Origin: Transverse processes of vertebrae above.Insertion: Transverse process of the vertebrae belowInnervation: Depends upon region.Action: Lateral flexion of vertebral column
ALL--contain coronary blood vessels and fat; includes coronary sulcus that encircles the heart; and includes anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus that marks boundary between ventricles
sac liek structues containg fluid similar to synovial fliud
Avascular (contains no blood vessels) but innervated (supplied by nerve fibers)
Directional and Regional terms
Figure 1.4(slides 7-9)
Functions of the skin
Thermoregulation- (temp. regulation)
Protection- barrier function
Sensation- touch, pressure, vibration, itching, temperature, & pain
Excretion & Absorption-  passage of substances into & out of the body including water, heat, & small amounts of salts & wastes. 
Synthesis of Vitamin D = calcitrol; - UV rays convert a cholesterol derivative in skin which is modified first in liver then in kidney to its active form, calcitrol, for calcium homeostatis.
Trunks of brachial plexus surround what artery?
Give a ex of ionic bond
located on the frontal lobe
triangular area bounded by ureteral openings and entrance to the urethra-lacks rugae, smooth and thick, funnel that channels urine into the urethra when bladder contracts
thick filament
myosin (tail + 2 heads)
respiratory diaphragm
ribs, xiphoid process and lumbar vertebrae
central tendon
rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied by marked deformities, and ordinarily associated with manifestations of a general, or systemic, affliction.
white/gray matter
Enter your back text here.
abdominal aorta
The testicular arteries arise from the...
a concave or depressed area where vessels or nerves enter or exit an organ; also called hilus
Catalysts in living cells whose names usually end in -ase. ex: oxidase, kinase, lipase
Uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood or lymph
inductive method
observing many and making a generalization based on all observations rather than only one
Chemicals consist of..
microscopic particles called atoms, which join to form molecules. Small molecules can combine in complex ways to form larger macromolecules
Function of oligodendroglia?
To myelinate multiple CNS axons
lung scan
ventilation- using gas of inhaled aerosalperfusion- (VQ)radiopharmaceutical injected into lung capillaries to obtain an image of the organ
site for synthesis of RNA
making up the ribosome
Pertaining to the side; denoting a position farther from the midline (median plane) of a structure.
Which category deals with changing blood levels of certain ions?
Humoral stimuli.
a strong signal from pneumotaxic center produces?
short inspiration
-relay center for cranial nerves to areas in head
-assists medulla in respiratory control
of, pertaining to, or affecting the stomach and intestines
1 billion, exchange vessels, has a single layer or endothelial cells, basement membrane, extensive branching (increased surface area), autoregulation
The superior segment of the sternum is the...
Satellite cells
glial cells of the PNS, found surrounding neuron cell bodies within ganglia
In general, it is a substance that dissociates in solution to yield a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a cation, is an electron acceptor, and has a pH of >7.
differential density interface
objects of different attenuation are easy to make out
Internal Intercostals : Insertion
Inferior border of rib above
Smooth muscles of pulmonary arterioles in respond to low O2 or high (H)
-poor alveolar ventilation
-arterioles run through intersitial space low in O2 and high in CO2 
NAMEis the study of the structure of the body parts and their relationships to one another
The oldest known member of the cephalochordate is the _ which is an extant version of the _ (Amphioxus)
Pikala, Branchiostoma
musculature of the stomach
muscularis mucosae and muscularis externa contain an extra layer-outer longitudinal, middle circular, and inner oblique for added strength
Functions of Integument
protection, prevents loss of water, temp. reg., metabolic reg.,immune defense, sensory receptors, excretion
made of molecules and are the smallest units of all living things; have functions but are based on size and shape
EXTERNALLY what separates each atrium from its ventricle?
a coronary sulcus
belonging to or lying within a given part of certain muscles or nerves
 Right coronary artery
-branches and locations
1.right marginal branch- inferior border of heart
2. posterior interventricular or(decending) branch-Main trunk-in the posterior aspect of the coronary sulcus (posterior side of heart)
spinous process
slender projection from the back of a vertebra to which muscles and ligaments are attached
What is 1 called?
What is 2 called?
Nucleus pulposus
Anulus fibrosus
Stratum Lucidum
-(not in all skin- present in finger tips, palms, and soles that are areas of high friction)
-helps reduce abrasions
Attachments, innervations, and actions of the deep muscle group of the posterior compartment of the leg
Popliteal muscle: proximally attached to lateral condyle of the femur, distally attached under medial tibial condyle. Unlocks the knee joint.
Tibialis posterior: proximally attached to lateral aspect of the tibia and interosseous membrane, distally attached to the navicular tuberosity. Plantarflexion.
Flexor hallicus longus: proximally attached to inferolateral interosseous membrane and fibula, distally attached to dista phalynx (big toe). Flexes great toe and plantarflexion of the foot.
Flexor digitorum longus: proximally attached to posterior surface of the tibia, distally attached to the four lateral phalanges. Flexion of the toes and contributes to plantarflexion.
All innervated by the tibial nerve.
structure of a typical vertebrae
1. body2. vertebral arch-luminae(b/t transverse and spinal process) and pedicles (b/t body and transverse process)3. transverse process4spinal process5. Superior and inferior vertebral notches6. Superior and inferior articulatory facets7. vertebral canal
Which occurs in ovary?Which does not occur in uterus?Maintained by low estrogen?Uses estrogen?Maintained by high estrogen?Maintained by high estrogen ONLY?
NoneNoneMenstrual PhaseAllSecretory and Proliferating PhaseProliferating Phase
Which of the following is the largest nerve in the body?a.medial nerve b.sciatic nerve c.femoral nerve d.brachial nerve
sciatic nerve
Three criteria are used to describe receptors:
Stimulus origin
Receptor distribution
Modality of stimulus
hair follicle
a small cavity in the epidermis and corium of the skin, from which a hair develops
What are the muscles of the Erector spinae muscle group?
Spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
superior and inferior vena cava
azygous and hemiazygous drain into the..
Embryonic Period - Week 5-8
limb buds form
embryo first looks recognizably human
head is disproportionately large
all major organs in place
T or F all particles of matter are in constant motion bc of kinetic energy
Tapered end of stomach
Part of stomach just below enterance of esophagus
layers of the neural layer (retina)
1.Photoreceptor layer: outer most, comprised of rods and cones
2.Bipolar cells:– synapse with photoreceptors and ganglion cells
3.Ganglion cells:innermost form optic nerve
  Atrioventricular valves (bi and tricuspid)
1. components assosciated with
2. how they function
1.) 1. Papillary muscles- cardiac muscle extending from inner wall of the ventricle
2. Tendinous cords or Corda tendinae- tendons extending from papillary muscles
3. Valve cusp (mitral or bicusoid has 2 cusps, tricuspid has 3 cusps)
2.)When the ventricles contract the blood that goes up against the valve (pressure change), causes the valve to close and prevents a backflow of blood from the ventrical to atrium
Posterior compartment of the forearm - deep layer
All innervated by radial nerve
Extensor indicis
3 outcropper muscles - extensor pollicis longus and brevis and abductor pollicis longus
Scrotal swelling can be due to..
Hydrocele (excessive fluid in tunica vaginalis)Varicosities (twisting of spermatic cord)Spermatocele (blockage of sperm from testis to epididymis)Testicular cancerHernia
The head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity form what joint?
glenohumeral joint-or shoulder joint-
radioulnar joint, proximal the proximal articulation between the radius and ulna that is contained within the capsule of the elbow joint
a synovial pivot joint; it is the articulation between the head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna which is completed by the annular ligament
What is the correct sequence of levels forming the structural hierarchy?
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal.
Terminal lymph vessels empty in the ____ or ____ ______ vein and then into the ___ ___ ___
Right or left brachiocephalic vein Superior vena cava
What is the outside layer of the small intestine?
serosa = visceral peritonuem
What layer of the scalp could pus and infection potentially spread through? What type of vasculature make this a serious risk for brain infections?
Infection could potentially spread through the loose connective tissue of the scalp. Emissary veins make this a real risk for brain infection.
why are they called floating ribs?
becuase they DO NOT attach to the sternum.
How many eggs disappear by birt and puberty?
half disapear by birth and half disappear by puberty
what are the two main regions of the tooth?What is enamel made of?
crown and rootmade of Ca salts & dydroxyapetite crystals
card/o, cardi/o
Sweat Glands
plastic surgery
toward the head
Are phagocytes specific?
smooth ER
synthesis/metabolismof lipids
detoxification & calcium storage
The large instestines,________?
Cells undergo hemolysis (rupture).
muscle functions
produces body movements
stabilizes body movements
moves substances through the body
stopping of blood loss
Broncus: most post.Arteries: Sup/AntVeins: Inf/Ant
Nerve Pec. Minor
medial pec. nerve
dense irregular connective tissue; surrounds the perimysium
the point of the shoulder
Anetcubital refers to the (1)
buccinatorcorners of mouth. for smiling and chewing
Extensor Indicis
Location: Deep Posterior MusclesAction: Extends MP, PIP & DIP joints of finger 2; weakly extends wrist
What are large folds called?
vas deferens
the duct which conveys spermatozoa
The process of scar tissue formation.
Inflammation of tarsal gland (oil gland in eye)
an opening or fissure; a foramen
Present at the time of birth
Including Shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, arms and legs
Appendicular Skeleton
between medial and lateral structure ex: armpit between breastbone and shoulder
when the membrane potential becomes less negative, the membrane is
free radicals
highly reactive chemcials with unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of proteins and nucleic acids.
the active process of materials entering our digestive tract through the mouth
the head, esp. of an arthropod.
adequate blood supply or flow is needed in?
Sodium and potassium
Common Uses of Electrolytes:Nerve Impulses
What muscle does trochlear nerve innervate?
Superior oblique
subdural space
potential space where arachnoid meets the dermal layer
blood cell production (in red bone marrow)
Xiphoid Process
Most inferior part of the sternum
NAME this system protects deep tissues from injury and synthesisezes Vitamin D
intergumentrey system
innervation of lat comp.
superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve
complicated shapesvertebrae, hip bones
major bones on skull
proper temperature regulation is vital to maintaining_____
metabolic reactions
atrioventricular valves closed , semilunar valves open
sinus of valsalva
Fasciculus cuneatus
houses axons from sensory neurons originating in the upper limbs, superior trunk, neck and posterior region of the head.
The Reflex Arc
Rapid, automatic, involuntary; consist of: stimulus, transmission to CNS, processing by interneurons, transmission to perif, effector response
closest point of attachment to trunk or miodline or closest to any point of reference that is given
Farther from the attachment of a limb to the body
Femoral hernia
  loop of bowel travels in femoral canal; assumes position in ant/medial thigh; herniated tissue is medial to NV bundle and within sheath
more prevelent in female
the skeletal system
Individual organs (bones) and their cartilages.
Hyoid bone
only attaches to other bones by ligaments & muscles; supports your tonque and larynx
vertebra prominens
7th and last of the cervical vertebra
Contents of carotid sheath
Ansa cervicalis (embedded in sheath)
Vagus nerve
Internal jugual vein
Common carotid artery
This layer of the uterine wall is smooth muscle, thickest layer, expel fetus
Identify and answer
1. Conus Medullaris2. Cauda Equina3. Filum Terminale4. L2 to S2
importance of cerebellum neurons
-play important role in learning/performing increased skilled movements-->golf, tennis, swimming
Olecranon Fossa (post surface)
Where is the Coronoid Process?
clinical anatomy
focuses on features that may undergo recognizeable pathological changes during illness
what makes up the appendicular region?
appendages and limbs
constriction of pupil
occurs with accomodation to prevent light rays from hitting periphery of lens
External Oblique
1) shape
2) direction
3) Gives rise to what?
1) Large, broad, flat
2) Same direction of external intercostal - inferiorly and toward midline like putting hands in pockets
3) Gives rise to inguinal ligament - thickening of aponeurosis of external oblique
4) ribs superiorly and iliac crest inferiorly and aponuerosis medially
visceral pain
ANS nerves to spinal nerves and is perceived as originating in tissues innervated by throacic or cervical nerves. pain usually referred cutaneously to the upper extremeties, neck, jaw, and even teeth
Which viscerocranium bones are paired?
1) Maxilla
2) Nasal
3) Palainte
4) Zygomatic
endocrine gland
type of gland that discharges into the blood
Neuromuscular Junction
the site at which a skeletal muscle fiber is stimulated
top seven ribs that attach directly to the sternum
histology of the pancreas
lumpy nodular texture, lobules are partitioned by CT, acini produce pancreatic juice (mix of water, ion and pancreatic digestive enzymes)
Prime Movers that Adduct Hand?
Extensor & Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Central Nervous System
division of the nervous sytem which ocnsists of the brain and spinal cord.
bile duct
a large duct that transports bile from the liver, having in humans and many other vertebrates a side branch to a gallbladder for bile storage
two sides of hand and feet
Hands: palm, dorsumFoot: sole, dorsum
Name the branches of the trigeminal nerve that provide these areas with sensory innervation:
1) Opthalmic/V1
2) Maxillary/V2
3) Mandibular/V3
Blood supply to the vagina
Vaginal artery (branches from the internal iliac. ascending and descending branches of the vaginal artery)
Internal pudendal artery supplies the posterior aspect of the vagina
**parallel venous drainage
What is the origin of the Splenius?
Spinous processCapitis (ligamentum nuchae)Cervicus (T1-T6)
Lateral Flexion:
to bend to the side. This term is usually used to describe sideways bends of thevertebral column. There is no word for the opposite action, so that a person that laterallyflexes to the right, straightens out by laterally flexing to the left.
floating rib
one member of the two lowest pairs of ribs, which are attached neither to the sternum nor to the cartilages of other ribs.
penile artery divides to what?
dorsal artery- supplies blood to skin, fascia, and spongiosumdeep artery - in core of cavernosum, dialation of deep artery fills lacunae causing erection
What connects the lateral edge of the ulna to the medial edge of the radius? (Ch. 7 pg. 179)
The antebrachial interosseous membrane, a sheet of fiber
What is anatomy?
is the study of the structure of the body parts and their relatiohsips to one another
Deep to superficial1. Mucosa (Epithelium, Lamina Propria, Muscularis Mucosa)2. Submucosa3. Muscularis Externa4. Serosa/Adventitia
What is the difference in histology b/w Esophagus and Stomach?
What doe chief cells produce?how is pepsinogen activated to pepsinWhere do you find peptide bonds?
pepsinogen & gastric lipaseHCL & pepsin with + feedbackin protiens
What makes up the borders of the inguinal (Hesselbach's) triangle?
Lateral border: Inferior epigastric vesselsMedial border: Rectus abdominis muscleInferior border: Inguinal ligament**Site of a direct inguinal hernia
What are hormones? What do they do?
Chemical substances that are secreted by cells into extracellular fluids & regulate the metabolic activity of other cells.
bone's role in calcium homeostasis
99% of calcium stored in bones but can also be pulled from the bone if needed in the blood.
sa node - av node - bundle of his -right and left bundle branches - purkinje fibers
Coccyx is comprised of (#) fused bones
( ) is comprised of 4 fused bones
What is a Jefferson (burst) fracture, and what might cause it?
When a blunt force is delivered to the top of the head (such as from diving into a pool bottom), the anterior and posterior arches are crushed between the occipital condyles and the axis. If the transverse ligament is torn, the spinal cord is likely to be injured.
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