Anatomy 78 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dorsal
Back
Ventral
Front
Facet
surface
Anterior
Front
Foramen
Hole
hordeolum
stye
left esotropia
cross-eyed
caudal
towards the tail
lipoma
benign fatty tumor
Medial
closer to the midline
photosensitivity
Photosensitivity, sometimes referred to as a sun allergy, is an immune system reaction that is triggered by sunlight. Photosensitivity reactions include solar urticaria, chemical photosensitization, and polymorphous light eruption and are usually characterized by an itchy eruption on patches of sun-exposed skin.
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelids
Deep
Closest to the innermost layer
Contralateral
Opposite side of the body
pallor
excessively pale, whitish-pink color to lightly pigmented skin
adults have ____ permenant teeth
32
ABCDE
assymetry, borders, color, diameter, elevated
papilledema
increased intracranial pressure causes venous stasis in the globe, showing redness, congestion, and elevation of the disk.
furuncle
(boil) suppurative inflammatory skin lesion due to infected hair follicle
amplitude
how loud the alarm is
Iris
target shape of skin lesion
Tuberosity
larger raised portions of a bone
lentigines
aging; "liver spots" thickened areas of pigmentation
varicella
chicken pox. small tight vescicles first appear on trunk. then spread to face, arms, legs, shiny vesicles on an erythematous base are comonly described as dew drops. vesicles erupt in suceeding crops over several days, then become pustules and crusts.
tinea corporis
ringworm. scales- hyperpigmented in whites, depigmented in dark=skinned persons. on chest, abdomen, back of arms forming multiple circular lesions with clear centers.
what is between the two nairs?
columella
herpes zoster
shingles, small grouped vescicles emerge along route of cutaneous sensory nerve, then pustules, then crusts. caused by the varicella zoster virus, a reactivation of the dormant virus of chicken pox. acute appearance, commonly on trunk.
frequency
pitch, number of cycles per second
hemangioma
skin lesion due to benign proliferation of blood vessels in the dermis
anisocria
unequal pupil size, consider CNS disease
hypopyon
purulent matter in anterior chamber occurs with iritis and with inflammation.
Erosion
scooped out, shallow depression in skin
Condyle
articular surface in a joint where bones connect
parotid gland
the largest salivary gands, lies within the cheeks in front of the ear extending from the zygomatic arch down to the angle of the jaw.
each naris opens into the _____
vestibule
ptosis
drooping of upper lid w/ neuromuscular weakness
paranasal sinuses
air-filled pockets within the cranium. they communicate with the nasal cavity and are lined with the same type of ciliated mucous membrane. they lighten the weight of the skull bones, serve as resonators for sound production and provide mucus.
anterior ____ palate and posterior _____ palate
hard, soft
Tonic pupils
sluggish reaction to light and accomodation. tonic pupils is usually unilateral.
lichenification
tightly packed set of papules that thickens skin, from prolonged intense scratching
candidiasis
thrush: white patches that occur in newborns and can be after the use of antibiotics, corticosteriods, and immunosuppressed patients.
nodule
elevated skin lesion, > 1 cm diameter
presbycusis
a type of hearing loss with aging
actinic keratosis
aging; red, tan scaley plaques that
crust
thick, dried-out exudate left on skin when vesicles/pustules burst or dry up
plaque
skin lesion in which papules coalesce or come together
urticaria spots
wheals coalesce to form extensive reaction, intensely pruritic. Hives
Head
specialized portion of the top of a bone
near vision
presbyopia: the decrease in power of accommodation with aging
Weber test
valuable when a person reports hearing better with one ear than the other. place a vibrating tuning fork in the midline of the person's skull and ask whether the tone sounds the same in both ears or better in one. the person should hear the tone by bone conduction through the skull.
acute glaucoma
acute, narrow angle glaucoma shows a circumcorneal redness around the iris, with a dilated pupil. pupil is oval, dilated; cornea looks "steamy" and the anterior chamber is shallow
hyphema
blood in anterior chamber is a serious result of trauma or spontaneous hemorrhage
romberg test
assesses the ability of the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear to help maintain standing balance. b/c the romberg test also assess intactness of the cerebellum and proprioception.
otitis media
middle ear infection, occurs b/c of the blocking of the eustachian tube.
conductive hearing loss
hearing loss of a mechanical dysfunction of the external or middle ear
sebaceous hyperplasia
raised yellow papules with a central oppression.
in the optic disc, which are brighter veins or arteries?
arteries
hematoma
bruise you can feel. elevates the skin and is seen as swelling. multiple petechiae and purpura may occur on the face when prolonged vigorous crying or coughing raises venous pressure.
1+, 2+, 3+, 4+
visible, halfway between tonsillar pillars and uvula, touching the uvula, touching eachother.
erythema
intense redness of the skin due to excess blood in dilated superficial capillaries, as in fever or inflammation
Cyanosis
dusky blue color to skin or mucous membranes due to increased amount of unoxygenated hemoglobin
macule
flat skin lesion with only a color change
extropion
lower lid is loose and rolling out, does not approximate to eyeball, occurs in aging b/c lack of elastin fibers
where are oral malignancies most likely to develop?
behind the teeth.
saliva is decreased while the person is taking ____ , excess saliva and drooling occur with _____ and _____
anticholinergic meds, gingivostomatitis and neurologic disfunction.
cilliary body
controls the thickness of the lens and produces clear, water humor
Monocular blindess
when light is directed to the blind eye, no response occurs in either eye. when it is directed to the normal eye, both pupils constrict as long as oculomotor nerve is intact
upward palpebral slant
although normal in many children, when combined with epicanthal folds, hypertelorism (lg. spaces b/w eyes) and brushfield spots (light-colored areaas in outer iris) indicated downs syndrom
optic atrophy
optic atrophy is a white or gray color of the disk as a result of partial or complete death of the optic nerve.
differentiate between petechiae, ecchymosis, hematoma
P- tiny punctate hemorrhage, 1-3 mm, round and discrete, dark red, purple or brown. caused w/ bleeding in capillaries; E-
snellen eye chart
place snellen chart in well lit spot at eye level. position person on a mark exactly 20 feet from the chart. leave eyeglasses or contact lenses on. top represents your distance from the chart, and the bottom represents how far away someone with normal vision could still see it.
the inner ear contains the _____ _______, which holds the sensory organs for equilibrium and hearing. within the ______ are the ____ and _____ as well as the __________
bony labyrinth, vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea.
corneal light reflex
assesses the alignment of the eye axes by shinging a light toward the person's eye. direct the perdon to stare straight ahead as you hold the light about 30 cm away. note the reflection of the light on the corneas, it should be exactly the same.
check the tongue for ____, _____, and _____
color, surface and moisture
define puillary light reflex, fixation, and accommodation
normal constriction of the pupils when bright light shines on the retina. the pupil with light constricts as well as the other b/c of consensual light reflex. b/c optic nerve carries sensory afferent message in and then synapses w/ both sides of the brain. accommodation: the ability of eyes to follow a specific object toward the face, and eyes cross. fixation: fixed on an object.
cherry red lips is indicitave of what?
carbon monoxide poisining, acidosis from aspirin poisening, or ketoacidosis.
skin condition of the ear
skin color should be consistent with face color. skin is intact. Darwin's tubercle, a small painless nodule at the helix. congenital varian and is not significant
six cardinal fields of gaze
will elicit any muscle weakness during movement.
the auditory system can be divided into three levels:
peripheral, brainstem, and cerebral cortex
tenderness of the ear:
move the pinna and push on the tragus. they should feel firm, and movement should produce no pain. palpating the mastoid process should also produce no pain.
the external auditory meatus
note the size of the opening to direct your choice of speculum for the otoscope. no swelling, redness, or discharge should be present. some cerumen is usually present. color varies from gray yellow to light brown and black, and the texture varies from moist and waxy to dry and desicated. lg. amount of cerumen obscures visualization of the canal and drum.
mobility and turgor of the aging adult
the turgor is decreased (less elasticity) and the skin recedes slowly or "tents" and stands by itself
frank blood or clear water drainage CSF after trauma, in ear suggests
basal skull fracture and warrants immediate referral. CSF feels oily and is positive for glucose on TesTape.
six cardinal fields of gaze: note any nystagmus =
nystagmus = a fine oscillating movement best seen around the iris.
inspect size and shape of ear:
ears of equal size bilaterally with no swelling or thickening. ears of unequal shape: microtia 10 cm.
atresia, otitis media, impacted cerumen
absense or closure of the ear canal, a sticky yellow discharge accompanies otitis externa or may indicate otitis media if the drum is ruptured, impacted cerumen is a common cause of conductive hearing loss
how do you test hearing acuity in a newborn?
clap, make a loud noise. newborn should blink acoustically, 3-4 months: acoustic blink reflex, infant stops movement and appeas to listen. 6-8 months: infant turns head to localize sound, responds to own name.
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