Anatomy 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mit-
thread
otic
ear
axilla
armpit
Parietal
mamm
breast
MYELO
spinal cord
ef
away from
Mammary
Sudoriferous gland
popliteal
back of knee
cilia

hair-like surface extensions

non-motile cilia 
thought to be for sensory functions
one found in most cells



motile cilia 

propel material in a particular direction using power and recovery strokes
well developed in the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes


 
antecubital
front of elbow
Joint or ligament Description
Notes
inferior
Away from the head.
Parasympathetic to parotid?
CNIX (preganglionic)
UNIVERSAL DONOR
blood type o
HOW MANY CRANIAL BONES?
8
walking on uneven ground
-eversion-fibularis longus/brevis-inversion-fibularis brevis, tibularis anterior/posterior
acetycholine
cholinergic neurons release the neurotransmitter __________
centrioles
 
short, cylindrical arrangement of nine triplet microtubule groups

centrosomes
pair of centrioles opposite and adjacent to one another
migrate to opposite poles during mitosis to form ends of mitotic spindle

 
What is anabolism?
synthesizing of substances
walls of urinary bladder
mucosa,submucosa,muscularis, serosa
vertebra
Latin, vertere, “to turn”, “a joint”; see “verse” a sequence of words arranged metrically in accordance with some rule or design; single line of poetry.
Artery
The blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your body.
CT
ovary's medulla is made up of..
guttaral pouch sx reasons
resp infectionchondroid bodiesepistaxis due to perforated internal carotid or maxillary v
Midsagittal Plane
or median plane
 
extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves
melanocytes
found only in the stratum basaleproduce pigment
cilia
move external to the cell. (respratory tract/falopean tubes)
basal ganglia has huge effect on........
-UMN
During normal resting conditions, the kidneys receive approximately ________ of the cardiac output.
21%
exocytosis
moves substances out of the cell
lymphatic system also returns _____that leaked out
plasma proteins
deltoid
a large, triangular muscle covering the joint of the shoulder, the action of which raises the arm away from the side of the body
Floating Ribs
1.numbers?
2. articulate anteriorly
1. 11-12
 
2. only articulate with the vertebral column, anteriorly they are free, do not articulate directly or indirectly with the sternum
Skeletal Muscle
Location: In skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to the skin.
fontanels
dermal areas where the skull bones have not completely grown and fused yet. They are of benefit in 2 ways. A) the babyas head is flexible allowing greater ease passing through the birth canal and B) the lymphatic drainage system may not be well developed in the babies head at the time of birth; so if there is swelling of the brain or tissues surrounding it, the skull will allow this to occur. Fontanels close around age 4-5.
fiber
general term for any neuronal process is a nerve _________
Comminuted
to break into pieces or multiple fragments
The disaccharide sucrose can be broken down into monosaccharides glucose and fructose via the process:
hydrolysis
neutralization
dehydration synthesis
hydrogen bonding
ionization
 
hydrolysis
neutralization
dehydration synthesis- forms polymers

hydrogen bonding
ionization
 
Acromegaly
high levels of HGH released after puberty, abnormal growth of hands, feet, lower jaw, skull, etc,
NAMEoveral all function is the production of offspring
reproductive system
Evolution
change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms
regulation of stomach
CNS,ANS,vagus nerve, celiac plexus, hormones released by small intestine via stimulation by liver and pancreas, parasympathetic stimulates gastric juice production, sympathetic inhibits gastric secretions
are mulitpolar nerons lying within the cns that form links between other neurons
interneurons
deep fascia
forms a strong internal frameworkbound to capsules tendons and ligaments
Paralysis
is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. can cause loss of feeling or loss of mobility in the affected area.
tract
bundle of nerve fibers within the CNS
jugular
pertaining to any of certain large veins of the neck collecting blood from the superficial parts of the head or collecting blood from within the skull
At what spinal level does the aorta perforate the diaphragm?
T12
Osmosis
diffusion of a solvent such as water through a specific channel protein or through the lipid bilayer
merocrine (eccrine)
over most of the bodywater secretion with NaCl and K
goiter
an enlarged thyroid gland is called a _______.
what an antigen?
anything that provokes an immune response, "nonself" (bacteria, pollen, fungi)
Abdominopelvic Cavity
the space between the diaphragm and the lower portion of the trunk of the body. contains the abdominal and pelvic organs (DIVIDED INTO NINE REGIONS)
What is the lifetime of the rbc?
120 days
lantern jaw, large hands and feet (acromegaly in adults)(what is produced in excessive amounts?)
growth hormone
pudendal nerve
nerve that originates from the sacral plexus S2 S3 S4
it is more inferior to posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
comes in posteriorly and wraps around more anteriorly into its branches
protectiv e coverings over the end of fingers and toes. accessory organs of the skin
nails
Prime Movers that Plantar Flex Foot?
Gastrocnemius & Soleus
Rectus Femoris
O: shaft of femur
I: Tibial Tuberosity Via patellar tendon
A: crosses two joints
Flexes hip joint
extends knee
sternum
a bone or series of bones extending along the middle line of the ventral portion of the body of most vertebrates, consisting in humans of a flat, narrow bone connected with the clavicles and the true ribs; breastbone.
superior / inferior colliculus
Enter your back text here.
Movement of Organs
1) retroperitoneal
2) intraperitoneal
 
1) fixed
2) fixed but have mesenteries that allow them to have flexible mov´t
Cauda Equina
bundle of spinal nerves at that distal portion of the spinal cord and resembles a horse's tail
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the what and ends in the what
begins= mouthends= small intestine
Frontal Sinus Relations - Superior?
Anterior cranial fossa and contents
What colon runs up the right side of the abdomen?
Ascending
phospholipid
in place of one fatty acid, they have a phosphate group, which, in turn, is linked to other functional groups
lateral pterygoid
This is a muscle of mastication. It originates on the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. It moves the mandible and limits sideways jaw movement.
simple cuboidal
one layer of cuboidal cells resting on a basement membrane, (common in glands and their ducts)
sternoclavicular ligament a ligament that reinforces the capsule of the sternoclavicular joint
the sternoclavicular ligament has two parts: anterior and posterior; it is a very strong ligament; the combined effect of this ligament, the costoclavicular ligament and the interclavicular ligament is to produce a very strong sternoclavicular joint that
secretory phase of menstral cycle? (15-26)
glycogen released and endometrium thickens more because of progesterone. ready for baby
acetabular notch
gap between the two ends of the facies lunata
Location of the sacral plexus
Posterior wall of the lesser pelvis
INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME
volume of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal inhalation
what neurons contain norepinephrine and where do the originate
adrenergic neurons, locate in locus ceruleus in the pons
chest
the trunk of the body from the neck to the abdomen; thorax
why are elements unqiue
the atoms of each element differ from hose found in other elements
What are the four signs of inflamation?
Red, hot, painful, and swollen
What type of ions do voltage gated channels govern.
Either pollatsium OR sodium.
What is an organism?
A HUMAN! made up of many organ systems.
tissues that work together to make up bone (7)
Bone, cartilage, dense connective tissue, epithelium, various blood-forming tissues, adipose tissue, nervous tissue.
where does the sciatic nerve arise from?
dorsal divisions of ventral rami L-4,5,S-1,2 and ventral divisions of ventral rami L-4,5, S-1,2,3
In which direction do the fibers of the intercostals (external & internal) run?
External intercostals- "hands in pockets"= fibers run infromedially from superior rib to inferior rib
High calcium of the blood will lead to
increased levels of calcitonin and increased osteoblast activity
What is the principle of complementarity of structure and function
what a structure can do depends on its form
What is the nerve that innervates the laryngeal derivative of the 4th arch? Be specific.
superior laryngeal branch of vagus (CN X).
List the boundries of the aditus (or laryngeal inlet, or superior laryngeal aperture). What are two cavities found within and what demarcates these boundries?
bounded by the superior border of the epiglottis, the aryepiglottic folds to either side, and the interarytenoid fold posteriorly. The cavity of the larynx is divided into supraglottic and infraglottic parts by the vocal folds.
peri
around
capill/o
capillaries
bi
two
Twinning
p.75
needle
acu
e-
out, from
mano (f.)
hand
hydrophilic
water loving
pituitary gland
"master gland"
cardiovascular system
transport materials
palmaris longus
arm muscle
pre-
before in time, place
groin pull
stretching/tearing/bruising of adductor longus (medial to lateral muscles); not in the pubic area, actually in the high thigh
lipid layer thickness
.1 um
cytoskeleton
supportive framework for organelles
# of axial bones
80
papillary muscles
control valves
relax: open
contact: closed
avian ribs
7 vertebral, 5 sternal
Posterior compartment of leg-- contains?
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
 Biceps femoris
Tubercle
small rounded projection of bone
TERTIARY BRONCHI
AFTER SUBDIVISION
CONTINUE BRANCHING INTO SMALL TUBES


END IN TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES & RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES
how many phalanges are there?
14
intergral membrane proteins
integral, peripheral, glycoproteins
trachea
Part of the respiratory system. filters air, traps particles in mucus; cartilages keep airway open
lymph enters blood at
before right atrium
events of sensation process
 
stimulation of receptor
transduction of stimulus
generation of nerve impulses
integration of sensory output
 
Astrocyte
Most abundant of glial cells
out number neurons by about ten to one
Help form a network on which neurons grow 
Anchor neurons to capillaries 
mop up 'leaked' NT's 
extension of teh muscle connective tissue attaching a muscle to bone
tendon
posterior to nasal cavaties, superior to soft palate. 5 openings. 1 between Eustachian tube and larynx, 2 between chonchae, 2 between Eustachian tubes
Choanae
Cells of Epidermis
Keratinocytes, Epidermal Dendritic, Melanocytes, Tactile
Potential Energy
inactive energy or stored energy
autonomic nervous system
provides automatic, involuntary negulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity or secretions
reproduction
new cells - growth, repair, replacement
Rotatores
att.: transverse process of C2, vert. of the sacrum, lamina immediately above the vert. of origininn.: dorsal rami, segmentally.
Physical 
Large pieces broken into smaller ones or grinding and mixing.
pelvic diaphragm
the pelvic visceral organs muscle layer is referred to as the..
thorocolumbar
based on the location of preganglionic cell bodies, the sympathetic division of the ANS is sometimes called the ________ division
-emia
pertaining to a condition of the blood
extensor carpi radialis brevis
origin: common extensor tendon
 
Insertion: base of metacarpals II and III
 
Innervation: radial n. (deep radial n.)
Spinalis Cervicis
Origin: Inferior portion of ligamentum nuchae and spinous process of C7. Insertion: Spinous process of axis. Action: Extends Neck. Innervation: Vervical spinal nerves.
Gastrocnemius
two heads, from the lateral and medial condyles and posterior surface of the femurI- inserts into calcaneustendon....aka....achillies heal...which goes to posterior calcaneus bone fo footA- flexes knee, plantar flexes, invertsN- tibial sciatic nerve
synthesis of melanin from the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the amino acid tyronase occurs here
melanosome
loop of henle
part of nephron-further reabsorption of water in the descending limb, and Na+ and Cl- in ascending limb
layers of dense connective tissue that surround the entire muscle are called
fascia
Mylohyoid
Elevates hyoid bone; elevates floor of mouth
Membrane phospholipids:
ALL---A) arrange themselves in bilayer B) composed of one glycerol molecule linked to phosphate groups and 2 fatty acids C) have hydrophobic heads faced outward and exposed to water
frontal
of, pertaining to, or situated near the forehead or the frontal bone.
tonsil
a prominent oval mass of lymphoid tissue on each side of the throat
Anatomy
The study of the structures of the body is...
The premotor cortex is found in which lobe of the cerebral cortex?
Frontal
Posterior longitudinal ligament
provides posterior support to the vertebral column and runs from bodies of C2 (axis to the sacrum)
variable
the antigen binding site is located in the _________ region of an immunoglobulin molecule.
the somatic nervous system is responsible for
voluntary motor output
Gait cycle
Stance phase: when reference foot is on the ground (60% of gait cycle)
Swing phase: when reference foot is off the ground (40% of gait cycle)
mechanisms that move the body away from normal function
positive feedback
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
take deoxygenated blood from upper body and returns it to the right atrium
Wernicke's Aphasia
loss of the ability to understand languageperson can speak clearly, but the words that are put together make no sense. This way of speaking has been called \"word salad\" because it appears that the words are all mixed up like the vegetables in a salad.Temporal Lobe
Where would you NOT find cerebral spinal fluid?
arbor vitae
transport vesicles
protein sent to rough ER via this
1The component of the reflex arc that is responsible for responding to efferent impulses is the
effector
sweat gland
one of the minute, coiled, tubular glands of the skin that secrete sweat
mass number
is the sum of its protons and neutrons
basic fully contracted muscle 
____________ happens


A-band = stays the same
 
I-band = shrinks, shortens, narrows
 
H-zone = disapears
 
Sarcomere = shortens
 
Z-disk = stays the same
 
M-line = stays the same
 
What are the characteristics of nervous tissue?
 
excitable
no ECM
conductive of electrical signals (action potentials)
found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
breast muscles
move the wing are well developed and in some species represent as much as 20% of the body weight
serratus posterior inferior
o: spinous processes of lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae
 
i: lower 3 or 4 ribs
 
A: restrains ribs against upward pull of diaphragm during inspiration
 
n: ventral primary rami of last 4 thoracic nerves (intercostals)
The amount of (1) depends on the energy level
potential energy
What is a person's theoretical Max heart rate?
220 - Age
WHICH CELLS FORM THE ALVEOLAR WALL
SIMPLE PULMONARY EPITHELIUM CELLS
Respiratory Membrane structure (.2-.6 microns thick)
alveolar membrane, epithelium basement membrane, capillary endothelial basement membrane, capillary endothelium
patella
the flat, movable bone at the front of the knee; the kneecap
osmostic pressures
pressure of fluid due to its solute concentration, blood colloid- 26 mmHg; interstitial fluid- 1 mmHg
what is chemical energy?
stored in the bonds of chemical substances
when the bonds are broken energy is released
Open Chain
a segment where the distal end is not fixed or in contact with the ground
motor unit is ________________
motor neuron and the fibers it controls
What is a myocardial bridge?
When an epi-cardial vessel dives underneath the muscle of the
heart.
- Closed portion of Vaginal Process is a weakness- If it herniates, portion of small intestine can protrude into inguinal canal --> scrotum
Root of Penis
vocal cords
either of the two pairs of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the cavity of the larynx
Name the structures in the 3rd layer of the eye:
 
 
1) Optic retina
2) Fovea
Describe the location and anatomical structures associated with the superficial cervical fascia.
The superficial cervical fascia is analogous to the subcutaneous layer of skin. This contains the platysma and is innervated by the cervical branch of CN seven, or the Facial Nerve. This means it was derived from the second branchial arch.
The EXTRINSIC MUSCLES responsible for RESPIRATORY is innervated by what?
Ventral Rami of the Thoracic Cord
Landmarks of the anterior region
1.Larynx (voice box) – found in the middle of the neck
2.Thyroid cartilage – commonly referred to as the “Adam’s apple
3.Trachea
4.Suprasternal notch – on the superior border of the manubrium of the sternum
the fastest way that ATP is regenerated during muscle activity is     
direct phosphorylation coupled to the reaction of creatine phosphate


     Which of the following statements regarding all the synapses of the nervous system is true?
Some are excitatory and some are inhibitory          
WHAT IS EMBEDDED IN THE 'LACUNAE' OF COMPACT BONE AND SPONGY BONE?
OSTEOCYTES ARE EMBEDDED IN LACUNAE!!!!!!!!
What type of joints are the proximal and distal tibiofibular joints respectively? Which arteries supply each? What nerves supply each?
1. synovial and syndesmosis (bone united with fibrous sheath)2. inferior lateral genicular and anterior tibial recurrent supply proximal tibiofular joint. Distal joint is supplied by perforating branch of fibular artery and medial malleolar branch of anterior and posterior tibial arteries.3.) Proximal tibiofibular joint is innervated by common fibular and popliteus nerves. Distal tibiofibular joint is innervated by deep fibular, tibial, and saphenous nerves.
what are the synovial articulations relative to the 5th metatarsal
cuboid = proximal surface of the 5th metatarsal base
4th meta = medial surface of the 5th meta base
proximal phalanxy of the 5th digit = distal surface of the head
if the ventral nerve root of a spinal is never destroyed a person would lose..
willed movement related to that pathway 
Angle of declination (aka Torsion angle)
Angle b/w the axis of the neck of the femur and the axis of the 2 condyles.
 
Larger angle --> toeing in
Smaller angle --> toeing out
 
/ 177
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online