Anatomy and Physiology 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
kidney
neph-
crown
coron-
oil
seb-
dilation
-ectasis
cartilage
chondr-
outpatient
OP
fat
lip/0
nucleoli
zygote
fertilized egg
passing through
di-
division, split
schiz-
state, condition
-esis
hypoplasia
incomplete development
Hypertonic







a solution that is higher in
concentration than the inside of a cell

Aerobic
Requiring oxygen.
lacrimal gland
produces tears
last menstrual period
LMD
congestive heart failure
CHF
intermittent positive-pressure breathing
IPPB
neuroid
resembling a nerve
main cause diuretics
hypokalemia
Histology
Study of tissues
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Location
tendons
ligaments
 
Functions
strong attachment of two body parts in one direction
Calsequestrin
A calcium binding protein.
Flexors and Extendors
(action only)
*circumduction 
a record or picture
-gram
RNA nucleotide pairing
A-U, C-G
Hypertrophy
Increase in cell size
Covalent Bond
Atoms share electrons
subluxation
_________  is a partial disclosure
vitreous humor
found in posterior cavity
______ papillae—rounded with taste buds
FUNGIFIORM
basement membrane
thin, extracellular layer between
leukocytosis
increase in number ofo WBC
Disgest substances within the cell
Lysosome
an increase in urine production
diuresis
- ends of the bone.
Epiphyses
Bases
proton receiversmore OHaccept hydrogen ions and convert them to water
pacemaker
sets the heart beat rate
distal
direction, further from the body trunk
All arteries of the systemic circulation originate from the:
aorta
An inorganic substance that releases ions when it reacts with water; breaks up in solution to form charged particles or ions
electrolyte
 

Taste buds house the ______ organs
RECEPTOR
serous mbanes
the pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum
glycogenesis
series of reactions that convert glucose or other monosaccharides into glycogen for storage
varicose veins
abnormally swollen, distended, and knotted veins, usually in the subcutaneous tissues of the leg
Glucose
Often called blood sugar; the principal sugar in the blood.
Gives a 3-D image
Scanning Electron Microscope
relaxation of the ventricles during filling
diastole
a simple, inexpensive and informative series of lab tests (color, appearance, and a microscopic examination of urine)
urinalysis
Gives a 3-D image
Scanning Electron Microscope
sella turcica
saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull
Inflammation
The reactions of tissue to injury.
rectus abdominis
flexes trunk and compresses abdomen
deltoid
a large, triangular muscle covering the joint of the shoulder, the action of which raises the arm away from the side of the body.
Appositional Growth
New chrondroblasts arise from the perichondrium  and deposit new cartilage on the "outside" of the cartilage. 
where is spongy bone most found?
inner portion
Which of the following organs are located in the pelvic cavity?1. urinary bladder2. small intestine3. internal reproductive organs4. spleen5. rectum
1,3,5
Antibodies
A protein that detects and destroys foreign substances
Coronary arteries:
flow is greater wen ventricles relax
 
Splenius Capitis
Origin: Broad muscle deep to trapezius
 
Action: Extends and hyperextends the head and neck
Alkaline phosphatase
produced by osteoblasts, is essential for mineralization of bone
cells
the smallest subdivision of a tissue considered to be alive; consists of a plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm and, in most cases, a nucleus
intravenous pyelogram
radiographic procedure in which a radiopaque dye is injected into a vein and its path through the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder is followed to visualize abnormalities in the renal vessels and urinary tract
which of the following accessory organs stores bile?
 
teeth
salivary glands
liver
gallbladder
pharynx
 
4. gallbladder
 
pathology
branch of medicine that studies the essential nature of disease, especially the structural and functional changes in tissues
Bohr effect
The change in hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen in response to changes in pH. By forming hydrogen ions, carbon dioxide loading facilitates oxygen unloading.
Defecation reflex
Reflex that initiates elimination of feces.
Distinct segments of DNA that code for specific proteins are called...
Genes
Left atrium collects oxygenated blood from the
pulmonary circulation
if NaCl is decreased in the bloodstream , ______, is secreted and more NaCl is absorbed
aldosterone
Contains enzymes important in lipid synthesis, absorption of fats from digestive tract, and metabolism of drugs
Smooth ER
inguinal
the depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh (groin)
Produce viscous perspiration with organic substances that can be source of body odor
Apocrine sweat gland
plasma membrane
separates cell contents from the surrounding environment; double layered lipid structure that the protein molecules float in; determines which substances enter/leave the cell
Double Covalent Bond
Sharing two pairs of electrons
Supporting neural tissue involved in the formation of the myelin sheath and blood brain barrier
Glial cells
ganglion
a mass of nerve tissue existing outside the central nervous system.
neurotransmitter
chemical that axon end secretes to control another neuron or an effector
Bursae and tendon sheaths
__________ act as "ball bearings." 
Which of the following are used by muscles for energy?
acetylcholine
Synovial Joint
Bones forming the joint have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule, and often by accessory ligaments.
polarization of myocyte:
sparse SR release of supplemantal calcium ions from ECF
External oblique abdominis
Origen: lower 7 ribsInsertion: fans inferiorly to iliac crest, inguinal ligament, abdominal aponeurosis Innervation: T7-T12Function: trunk rotation (unilateral contraction), vertebral extension (bilateral contraction)
SR foot proteins
gated channels that regulate Ca2+ 
release from the SR cisternae
 
metabolism
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body, including catabolism and anabolism
atrioventricular valve
valve between an atrium and a ventricle in the heart
This develops from the epiblast and carries a protective fluid

cytotrophoblast
yolk sac
exocoelomic membrane
amnion
4. amnion
parietal
refers to the wall of a body cavity
Anterior interventricular artery
Branch of left coronary artery; supplies oxygenated blood to interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles.
How many cranial nerves arise from the base of the brain and in the brain stem?
12
What is facillitated diffusion?
assisted diffusion without requiring energy
their main function is to prevent bacteria and viruses from gaining access to the bloodstream
lymph nodes
the first main deep vein is the
axillary vein
In which phase is DNA tightly wound into chromosomes?
Prophase
- (tailbone, is a fusion of, usually, 4 vertebrae) It is a triangular bone. It points more inferiorly in females and more anteriorly in males
Coccyx
lacrimal bones
inside lower nasal side of the eyesocket
As a result of the function of reabsorbtion the blood levels of calcium and phosphorus are _____________.
decreased
Polymer
A large molecule consisting of a long chain of subunits (
Epithelial cells found in some ducts of glands and in passage ways of kidneys
Simple cuboidal
dorsal
of, pertaining to, or situated at the back, or dorsum.
What are the most common type of sweat glands?
merocrine/eccrine
what is cholinergic?
refers to something that is associated with acetylcholine (in efferent division of peripheral nervous system)
Two Reaction Pathways to coagulation:
extrinsic mechanism, clotting factors released by damaged blood vessel and intrinsic mechanism initiated factors are found in plasma or platelets (clots).
three types of muscle
skeletal or voluntary; smooth also called visceral or invuluntary; and cardiac
posterior
nearer to or at the back of the body
Which of the following small intestine cells secrete lysozyme?
 
goblet cells
absorptive cells
mucosa cells
paneth cells
S cells
 
5. S cells
posterior, dorsal
Toward or at the back of the body
The ___________ plays a key role in the excretory system
KidneysLiverSkinLg intestineLungs
tests the extrinsic system, used to evaluate those with liver disease
prothrombin time (PT)
a stack of membranous sacs involved in sorting and modifiying proteins and then packaging them for export from the cell
Golgi apparatus
- on the anterior surface and serves as a point of attachment for the patellar ligaments.
Tibial tuberosity
Metastasis
The spread of disease from on part of the body to another.
The study of the functions of the body and the functions of all it's parts
Physiology
True
T or F? Bone surfaces of a flat bone are covered by a periosteum and endosteum. 
In the kidneys, the largest volume of water reabsorption occurs in the:
proximal convoluted tubules
Basic Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
A. Mostly cells, with little intercellular substance
b. Cells attached to basement membrane
c. free surface, may have microvilli, cilia, brush borders.
d. avascularity
What is the pH scale concentration of Stomach Acid?
0.8 - Acidic.
Cardiac muscle
Muscle tissue found in the wall of the heart.
(Regions of the Braind Stem)red nucleus
f(X)-provides reflexes to maintain posture works w/cerebellum
Glycolipids
- help form an outer coat on the cell called the glycocalyx.
Ceruminous gland/cerumen
An exocrine gland in the dermis of the ear canal that secretes cerumen
Dense irregular connective tissue
The fibrous layer of the periosteum is composed of ________. 
Injury to the hypothalamus would most likely result in
loss of body temperature control
What are the 4 types of Tissues?:
Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscular Tissue, and Cardiac Muscular Tissue
What are pores and channels?
various pores and channels that open and let molecules through
Regional anatomy refers to:
all structures in a specific part of the body
Bursae. Chp 6 pg 138
Many synovial joints also have bursae which are small sacs of synovial fluid between the joint . Bursae permit the tendons to slide easily as the bones are moved.
Where is the secretory portion of the gland located for merocrine/eccrine sweat gland?
Where is the releasing duct?
coiled deeply within the dermis
-releasing duct extends to surface of epidermis
Bulges, depression, and holes in bones serve as..
sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons; joint surfaces; and conduits for blood vessels and nerves
3. What are the major electrolytes found in extracellular fluid?
The most important electrolytes are Na, Cl, K, Mg, sulfate, phosphate, and HCO3. most electrolytes are obtained from food
Hip Bones Chp 6 pg 134
The pelvic girdle (or pelvic bone) consists of the 2 hip bones (coxae or innominate bones), which articulate with the axial skeleton at the sacrum.
What do flat bones look like? What are examples?
thin, flat, and usually curved-ex: sternum, ribs, scapula, and some of the skull bones
What is the life span of a red blood cell.
100 to 120 days
Define the term Metabolism. Give example.
Metabolism is a collective noun; it is all of the chmemical reactions and physical processes that take place within the body.
What 3 things does the pelvic cavity contain?
the distal portion of the large intestine, the urinary bladder and various reproductive organs
For air to enter the lungs during inhalation;
 
the pressure inside the lungs must become lower than the atmospheric pressure
the pressure inside the lungs must be higher than the atmospheric pressure
the pressure inside the lungs must be equal to th
1. the pressure inside the lungs must become lower than the atmospheric pressure
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