Anatomy and Physiology Exam 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
uterus
metr-
red
erythr-
bend
flex-
diaphragm
phren-
empty
vacu-
umbilicus
navel,bellybutton
many
multi
Calaneal
Heel
BICONCAVEX CRYSTAL-LIKE STRUCTURE
 
HELD IN PLACE BY A SUSPENSOR LIGAMENT ATTACHED TO THE CILIARY BODY
LENS
moon shaped
lun-
to carry
-fer-
above elbow
AE
without, lacking
a-
costal
the ribs
elevation
more superiorly
Symbol for Potassium
K
renal plasma flow
RPF
repetitive stress injury
RSI
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ELISA
anomoly
deviation from normal
vertebral
the spinal column
erector spinae
extends back
glaucoma
too much aqueous humor
Metabolism:


v Anabolism:
–Synthesis of new organic compounds. (build up)

v



 Catabolism:
–Breaking down of compounds to release energy to synthesize ATP (break down)
dysmenorrhea
difficult or painful menstruation
cytology
the study of cells
pericardial cavity
encloses the heart
Liquid portion of cytoplasm
Cytosol
gastrocnemius and soleus
plantar flexion
Deltoid
Origin clavicle, scapulae
Insertion humerus (deltoid tuberosity)
Action abduct arm
-ac, -al
pertaining or relating to
Posterior cricoarytenoid
Origen: posterior cricoid laminaInsertion: oblique-superior to contralateral arytenoidInnervation: RLB of CN XFunction: pulls apex medially & abducts vocal folds
amnion
the innermost fetal membrane; transparent sac that holds the developing fetus suspended in fluid
Cartilage
A tough, flexible, supporting connective tissue.
Anabolism
Synthetic, Energy requiring reaction whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones
what forms the renal pelvis
calyces
ulna
lower arm bone, pinky side
pronation
palms turned posteriorly or down
Arteries
blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
Brachialis
Origin humerus
Insertion ulna
Action flex elbow
The pressure inside the glomerulus is:
60mmHg
Hyoid and Laryngeal Elevators
Digastricus
Stylohyoid Mylohyoid Geniohyoid Hyoglossus Genioglossus Thyropharyngeus of Inferior Constrictor 
Muscle Fatigue
Physiological inability to contract, occurs when Ionic imbalances interfere with E-C coupling, and prolonged excercise damages the SR and interferes with Ca2+ regulation and release
Growth zone
cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
mittelschmerz
abdominal pain that occurs midway between the menstrual periods, at the time of ovulation
leg
portion of lower extremity between knee & foot; also called crural region
Contractility
Contractile strength of heart muscle; an increased contractility results in increased force of contraction at any give amount of muscle fiber stretch.
anaplasia
loss of differentiation of cells; reversion to a more primitive cell type; characteristic of malignancies
Parietal
Wall of a cavity or walls
15 LitersMain cation- SodiumMain anion- chloride
Extracellular Fluid
Connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Ligaments
Liver:

Sympathetic Effect
Glycogenolysis & release of glucose into the blood
Xiphoid process
bottom of sternum; ossified cartilage
Cushing's syndrome
Cortisol.Bones and skin become fragile; fat is deposited in the
trunk of the body
Principle connection between cerebral hemispheres
Corpus callosum
stapes
the innermost, stirrup-shaped bone of a chain of three small bones in the middle ear of humans and other mammals, involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
_______ is an autoimmune disease; flares up then subsides; treatment usually involves anti-inflammatory drugs and immunosuppressants. 
Regional anatomy
all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessles, nerves, etc.) in a particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time
ALL of the following are considered “special” senses EXCEPT: (A) smell (B) taste (C) touch (D) vision (E) hearing.
touch
Swallow Reflex
flipping over of epiglottis revents foreign object from entering trachea and closing of VF prevent things from going into Trachea
REGULATED AMT OF LIGHT ENTERING THE EYE
 
PIGMENTED LAYER THAT GIVE THE EYE COLOR  
IRIS
 
Levator Labii Inferioris
Origin: Rectus orientation, deep beneath platysma, on each side of mentalis.
 
Action: Depresses lower lip (pout)
The
Corniculate Cartilage
small conical elastic cartilages
No spicific function in humans
goblet cell
a goblet-shaped unicellular gland that secretes mucus; present in epithelium of the airways and intestines
purpura
a group of disorders characterized by a multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin
immunologist
a specialist in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of immune system disorders
lipid
a class of organic compounds that includes oils, fats, and related substances
Cholesterol
Steroid made by the liver; building block for steroid hormones.
Bicarbonate solution
A solution containing the ion HCO3–.
The principle nerves supplying the superficial parts of the arm and hand include
DigitalRadialMedian Ulnar
Parasympathetic Ganglia
Terminal ganglia at wall of organ
substances which, when placed in a solution, are decomposed and conduct an electric current
electrolytes
inner layer of simple squamous epithelium
tunica intima
Aerobic Respiration
utilization of stored chemical bond energy to allow cells to do work, taking in O2 and giving off CO2
an infection of the bone characterized by high fever, sweating chills, pain and nausia, pus formation, edema, and warmth over the affected bone and rigid overlying muscles.
osteomylitis
An unmyelinated axon is much slower because the action potential must occur down the entire length of an axon. true or false
true
The pituitary gland is enclosed and protected by the____________ bone.
sphenoid.
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes
(type of Eicosanoid), short chain fatty acid in which five of the carbon atoms are joined in a ring, direct local cellular activities
i.e. of a gomphosis joint
Teeth into socket
lobe
a roundish projection or division, as of an organ or a leaf.
Capillary Permeability
a conditions of the capillary wall structure that allows blood elements and waste products to pass through the capillary wall to tissue spaces
visceral peritoneum
covers surface of organs of the abdominopelvic cavity
The fluid produced in the nephron by the filtration process is called:
filtrate
2 Types of Muscle Attachments/ 2 Things that muscles attach to
Aponeurosis, Tendon
Other features of heart:
atrioventricular sulcus, anterioir and posterior interventricular sulci, interatrial septum, interventricular septum
Endoplasmic reficulum
A network of tubules that transports material throught the cytoplasm and aids in the synthesis of proteins and lipids
The
Cricothyroid Joint
Located between the Cricoid and Thyroid joints
allows either the cicoid orthyroid cartilages to move
rotation changes the tention of the vocal folds, and thus the pitch of voice
stratified columnar epithelium
epithelium with multiple layers; tall, marrow cells
agglutinin
a specific substance in plasma that is capable of causing a clumping of red blood cells
hemoptysis
spitting of blood as a result of bleeding from any part of the respiratory tract
thoracic
chest; part of trunk inferior to neck and superior to diaphragm
Basolateral membrane
The entire combined portion of the renal cell’s plasma membrane, which lies in contact with the interstitial space.
Does someone studying physicology look at how a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton or at how the muscle contracts?
How the muscle contracts
Oculomotor Nerve III (PNS)
Ciliary muscle and pupillary constricotor muscle inside eyeball
Function of Eosinophils
(increase in parasitic infections or allergies) -phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes, allergens and imflammatory chemicals-release enzymes to destroy parasites
A ______________ in pH, and an increase in body temperature will cause hemoglobin to _______________ oxygen.
decrease, release
anatomy
study of shape & structure of body parts
Male Pelvis
False Pelvis: deep
Pelvic Brim: heart shaped Pubic Arch: < 90 deg angle
Ilium: more vertical
Acetabulum: large and faces more laterally
Obturator Foramen: round
Pelvic Outlet: narrow
Nervous System
As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal & external changes by activating appropriate muscles & glands.
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion.4) Cortisol
D. ACTH
OrganOrgan System
Organ; A group of tissues working together to perform a specific funtion.Organ System; A group of organs working together to perform a specific function.
anterior
situated before or at the front of; fore (
Deudenum and Jejunum 
Absorption of calcium from the GI tract occurs in the _______ &________. 
NUCLEIC ACID
(DNA & RNA)
HUGE MOLECULES THAT STORE HEREDITARY INFORMATION THAT DETERMINES WHICH PROTEIN A CELL WILL HAVE
The 2 other names for a joint
Articulation & Arthrosis
LOSS OF THE SAME SIDE OF THE VISUAL FIELD OF BOTH EYES; RESULTS FROM DAMAGE TO THE VISUAL CORTEX ON ONLY ONE SIDE
HEMIANOPIA
paget's disease
high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone, treatment= calcitonin and biphosphonates
stratified epithelium
consists of two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in locations where there is considerable wear and tear
The exchange of gases across the respiratory membrane is called;
 
pulmonary ventilation
internal respiration
external respiration
expiration
inspiration
 
3. external respiration
Cellular level
cells are the smalles units of living things. All cells have some common functions, but individual cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their unique functions in the body. The simplest living creatures are single cells.
What is the total body weight percent of the body fluids? Intracellular and extracellular individually?
body fluids-70%intracellular-50%extracellular-20%
what are the tubules called in the penis
seminiferous tubules
- is the process by which bone forms.
Ossification (osteogenesis)
lumbar
area of the back between the ribs and hips (loin)
d) The stimulus for secretion of FSH is _____________ from the hypothalamus.
d) GnRH
pons
a band of nerve fibers in the brain connecting the lobes of the midbrain, medulla, and cerebrum.
What does connective tissue have an abundance of?
what different types are there in connective tissue?
extracellular matrix
1) collagen
2) elastic
3) reticular
 
what are somas called in the peripheral nervous system? central nervous system?
-ganglia (ganglion) = peripheral-nuclei = central
WHAT % OF SENSORY RECEPTORS ARE IN THE EYE
70 %
vertebral (spinal) canal
formed by the bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord
Muscles of the Ear (Aur- = Ear)
Auricularis Superior - AboveAuricularis Anterior - In frontAuricularis Posterior- Behind
plasma portiens lowered in the body creating a hypotonic plasma, resulting in the movement of fluid into the tissue spaces
liver and kidney disease
- this is where the condylar process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
Sarcomeres. Chp 7
The unit of contraciton in a skeletal muscle fiber; a precise arrangement of myosin and actin filaments between two Z lines.
reticular fibers
made of what?
 where found?
function?
 
fiers that are made of very thin fibrous protein
 
-found in extracellular matrix of connective tissue
-form a supportive network around lymphatic tissue
-found in spleen and lymph nodes
-what is the pathway for the somatic part of the efferent division? -autonomic?
-somatic pathway: single neuron-autonomic pathway: 2 neuron chain with a synapse in between
What is Anatomy?
is the study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts
Splanchnic Nerves to prevertebral ganglia Supply
GI Tract from Stomach to rectum, urinary and Reproductive organs
Chemical gradient (change over a space)
- the selectively permeable membrane maintains different concentrations of various chemicals in the cytosol (fluid inside cell) vs. extracellular fluid.
Calcium. Chapter 6 WB
Becomes part of the salts of bone matrix.
The vessels that empty into the upper right chamber of the heart are:
inferior and superior vena cava
Which of the following is not a function of the large intestine?
 
mechanical digestion
chemical digestion
absorption
feces formation
regulation of blood glucose
 
5. regulation of blood glucose
True or false: In carbon monoxide poisoning oxygen molecules are released more readily.
False. Carbon monoxide causes oxygen molecules to be held more tightly and this inhibits the release of oxygen into the peripheral tissues. This contributes to hypoxia, acidosis, and eventually shock.
Insulin Increases the intake of __________ and __________ by cells, to be used for the synthesis of __________ and ___________.
amino acids and fatty acids; proteins and fats
When the epiphyseal disk is replaced by bone
longs bones have reached their adult length
Force that is exerted by the large proteins, or colloids, found in plasma.
Oncotic force, or colloid osmotic pressure.
What part of the bone contains blood vessels and nerves?
the outermost layer of the periosteum of long bone (made of dense irregular connective tissue)
Describe how bones Grow in length:
1. The epiphyseal plate is a layer of hyaline cartilage where bone grows in length (interstitial growth)
2. Here the cartilage cells divide near the epiphyseal side of this plate to lay down new cartilage for growth.
3. On the diaphyseal side of the plate cartilage is replaced by bone so that the thickness of the plate stays relatively constant.
4. Between 18-25 years old, the epiphyseal plate closes and totally turns into bone. This leaves the epiphyseal line. A bone fracture at this plate, during youth, can cause it to close prematurely.
Semilunar notch and Trochlea Chp 6 pg 130
The semilunar notch of the ulna is part of the hinge joint of the elbow; it articulate with the trochlea of the humerus.
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Term:
Definition:
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